The next day, when Vijaya Kumara and Vrajanatha had honored prasada, they again went to Sri Radha-Kanta Matha, arriving just after midday. Sri Gopala Guru Gosvami had also honored maha-prasada, and was waiting for them. Sri Dhyanacandra Gosvami was sitting by his side writing Upasanapaddhati (The Procedures for Worship). At that time, Sri Guru Gosvami’s appearance was most remarkable. He was attired in the dress of a sannyasi, his forehead was marked with urddhvapundra tilaka, the syllables of hari-nama were written on each of his limbs, and four thick strands of tulasi adorned his neck. He held a japa-mala in his hand, and at intervals, streams of tears flowed onto his chest from his eyes, which were half-closed in meditation. Weeping and sighing, he sometimes called out loudly “Ha Gauranga! Ha Nityananda!” His body was somewhat plump, and his complexion was dark and effulgent. His coconut-shell cup full of water was standing close to the seat of banana-tree bark on which he was sitting, while his two wooden sandals lay at a distance.

      When Vijaya and Vrajanatha saw all this, unprecedented sraddha arose within their hearts.

They both offered their sastangapranama, and remained lying on the ground for a long time. The

residents of the Matha generally respected Vijaya and Vrajanatha, having seen their Vaisnava

qualities and their scholarship and profound understanding of many sastras, and also knowing

them to be residents of Sri Navadvipa-dhama. Today, however, all were especially struck with

wonder on seeing such ideal Vaisnava sentiments. When Guru Gosvami saw them lying down

and offering pranama in this way, he lifted them up, embraced them lovingly, and made them sit

down close to him. Vrajanatha waited for an appropriate moment, and then gradually and

politely raised the subject of rasa. Sri Gosvami began to speak, his heart filled with

prema, “Today, I will make you understand the subject of anubhava and so on, and cause


      “There are four ingredients of rasa: vibhava, anubhava, sattvika and vyabhicari.

Yesterday I explained vibhava-tattva, and today I shall first explain anubhava. Listen


     Vibhava refers to the personalities who are the cause of rati arising. Now, anubhava refers to those visible symptoms that cause rati to become evident, and by which the bhavas in the heart are realized. In other words, anubhava consists of activities such as sidelong glances and hairs of the body standing on end, which are manifest as external bodily transformations, but which actually reveal the bhavas of the heart. These internal bhavas are revealed by the following outward expressions of agitation: dancing (nrtya), rolling on the ground (vilunthana), singing (gita), crying out loudly (krosana), stretching the body and writhing (tanu-motana), roaring (hunkara), yawning (jrmbhana), sighing and breathing deeply (dirgha-svasa), indifference to public opinion (lokanapeksita), salivating (lalasrava), laughing loudly (atta-hasa), dizziness (ghurna), and hiccupping (hikka).”

Vrajanatha: How can these external transformations nourish the tasting of the rasa of the internal sthayibhava? I also have another question. At the time of tasting rasa internally, these anubhavas are manifested externally in the body, so how can they be separate and distinct ingredients of rasa?

Gosvami: Baba, you are indeed a real pandita of nyaya-sastra. To this very day, no one has posed such subtle questions as you have. When I used to study rasa-sastra in the company of Sri Pandita Gosvami, exactly the same arguments would arise in my mind. However, my doubts were quickly dispelled by Sri Gurudeva’s mercy. The confidential significance is that in the pure consciousness (suddhasattva) of the jiva, when vibhava stimulates the function of consciousness (citta) and assists the function itself, at that time a natural wonderment (vaicittya) arises, which makes the heart blossom in various ways, and this in turn causes some outward transformations to become evident in the body. These external transformations, such as dancing, are called udbhasvara, and they are of many types. When the heart dances, the body also begins to dance, and when the heart sings, the tongue also sings. You should understand the action of other transformations in the same way.  However, the action of udbhasvara is not the original action. Rather, the anubhavas that arouse and nourish the vibhavas then spread throughout the body in the form of udbhasvara.

     As soon as the sthayibhava in the heart is stimulated by the vibhava, anubhava begins its function as another action of the heart. Thus anubhava is a separate individual ingredient. When

this is revealed through activities such as singing, it is called “cooling” (sita); and when it is revealed through activities suchas dancing, it is called “throwing” (ksepana). There are also many

other symptoms of anubhava – such as swelling of the body, oozing of blood, and separation and contraction of the bone-joints which are very rarely seen, so I will not elaborate upon them any further. The extremely astonishing anubhavas that were seen in the body of my Pranesvara Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, such as becoming like a tortoise, are not possible in sadhaka-bhaktas. 


     After Vijaya and Vrajanatha had heard these confidential instructions of Guru Gosvami, they remained silent for some time, and then asked, “Prabhu, what is sattvika-bhava?”


Gosvami: The word sattva refers to the citta (pure heart or consciousness) that is stimulated by any bhava in relation to Krsna, either directly or with some obstruction. The bhavas that are born from this sattva are called sattvika-bhavas. There are three types of sattvika-bhavas: smooth (snigdha), smeared (digdha), and rough (ruksa).

Vrajanatha: What is snigdha (smooth) sattvika-bhava?

Gosvami: Snigdha sattvika-bhava has two divisions: mukhya (primary) and gauna (secondary). Mukhya-snigdha sattvika-bhava occurs when mukhya-rati that is directly in relation to Krsna overpowers the heart. Examples of mukhya-snigdha sattvika-bhava are becoming stunned, perspiring and so on. Gauna-snigdha sattvika-bhava arises from an invasion of the heart by gauna-rati, when Krsna is at some distance, or there is some obstruction. Two examples of gauna-sattvika-bhavas are: fading of the bodily color (vaivarnya) and faltering of the voice (svara-bheda). Smeared (digdha) sattvika-bhava arises when any bhava other than the function of mukhya-rati and gauna-rati overwhelms the heart. Trembling is an example of the digdha (smeared) sattvika-bhavas that follow on from rati.

     Sometimes, when someone who only appears to be a bhakta hears about the extremely wonderful and sweet bhavas of Krsna, he becomes astonished and experiences elation, although he actually has no rati. This is the third type of sattvika-bhava, which is known as ‘rough’ (ruksa). An example of ruksa sattvika-bhava is seen when the hairs of the body stand on end (romanca).

Vrajanatha: How does sattvika-bhava arise?

Gosvami: When the heart (citta) of the sadhaka becomes saturated with sattva-bhava (pure emotion related to Krsna), it submits itself to the life air (prana). Then, when the prana has been excited, it is transformed and causes the appearance of profuse agitation in the body. At that time, the bodily transformations such as stambha (becoming stunned) occur.

Vrajanatha: How many types of sattvika transformations are there?

Gosvami: There are eight sattvika transformations, namely, becoming stunned (stambha); perspiration (sveda); horripilation (romanca); faltering of the voice (svara-bheda); trembling

(vepathu); transformations of the bodily color (vaivarnya), such as dirtiness and thinness, which occur due to emotions such as despair, fear and anger; shedding tears (asru); and devastation


     Under some circumstances, the life-air (prana) remains as the fifth element (air) along with the other four elements (earth, water, fire and sky). However, sometimes when it predominates

that is, when it situates itself in the air (vayu) element – it travels throughout the body of the jiva. When prana comes in contact with the earth element, inertness (stambha) occurs; when it takes shelter of the water element, tears (asru) appear; when it is situated in the fire element, change in bodily color (vaivarnya) and perspiring (sveda) are evident; when prana takes shelter of the sky element, loss of consciousness or devastation (pralaya) occurs; and when prana is self-dominating and takes shelter of the air element, the transformed conditions of horripilation (romanca), trembling (vepathu), and faltering of the voice (svara-bheda) are manifested, depending on whether the degree of strength of prana is mild, moderate or intense, respectively.


     Since these eight transformations are active both internally and externally, they are sometimes called bhava and sometimes anubhava.  However, the anubhavas – such as dancing, rolling on the ground and singing are not considered the same as sattvika-bhavas because they are only active in the outer body. The anubhava activities, such as dancing, are not the results of bhava arising from sattva (i.e., sattvika-bhava). Rather, the activity is instigated by the application of intelligence. However, in transformations such becoming stunned, sattvika-bhava acts directly, without relying on the intelligence. For this reason, anubhava and sattvika-bhava are considered to be separate and distinct ingredients.

Vrajanatha: I would like to know the cause of asta-sattvika transformations such as stambha (becoming stunned).

Gosvami: Stambha is a state in which one becomes inert without speaking or having any other activity, and it is caused by jubilation, fear, astonishment, dejection, regret, anger and weariness. Sveda (perspiration) is moistness of the body caused by jubilation, fear, anger, and so on. Romanca (standing of the bodily hairs) arises from astonishment, jubilation, enthusiasm and fear. Svara-bheda (faltering of the voice) occurs due to despair, wonder, anger, jubilation, and fear. Vepathu (trembling ) is caused by fear, anger, jubilation, and so on. Vaivarnya (change in bodily color) is due to emotions such as despair, anger, and fear. Asru (tears) come from the eyes through the influence of jubilation, anger, despair and other emotions; tears of joy are cool, whereas tears of anger are warm. In the state of pralaya (devastation), one is bereft of activity and knowledge, and he becomes senseless and falls on the ground; this may be due to happiness or distress.

     There are four types of sattvika-bhavas corresponding to progressive gradations of sattva (purity). These are called smoking (dhumayita), alight (jvalita), burning (dipta), and blazing (pradipta). The ruksa (rough) sattvika-bhavas are generally dhumayita (smoking), whereas the snigdha (smooth) sattvikabhavas gradually reach the higher stages. Rati is the cause of all astonishing ananda, and in its absence, there is no wonderment in the ruksa sattvika-bhavas and other emotions.

Vrajanatha: Prabhu, sattvika-bhavas arise by extreme good fortune, but many people make a show of these bhavas when they are playing a role in a drama, or to accomplish their own tasks in worldly life. What may be said about the bhavas of such people?

Gosvami: Sattvika-bhavas that manifest naturally as one performs the sadhana of sincere and pure bhakti, are Vaisnava bhavas. Apart from these, whatever emotional symptoms appear can be divided into four categories: the semblance of rati (raty-abhasa); the semblance of sattvika-bhavas (sattvabhasa); symptoms that do not arise from sattva (nihsattva); and adverse or contrary symptoms (pratipa).  Vrajanatha: What is raty-abhasa (the semblance of rati)?  Gosvami: Raty-abhasa occurs in those who desire liberation; it arises in the impersonalist sannyasis of the Sankara sampradaya when they hear discussions about the pastimes of Krsna.

Vrajanatha: What is sattvabhasa (the semblance of sattvikabhavas)? 

Gosvami: Sattvabhasa is the semblance of joy and astonishment that arises in those whose hearts naturally give rise to loose emotions – for example, the adherents of jaran-mimamsa, and ordinary women – when they hear krsna-katha.

Vrajanatha: What is nihsattva (the semblance of bhava that does not arise from sattva)?

Gosvami: Nihsattva refers to symptoms such as horripilation and tears that are exhibited by people whose minds are naturally duplicit, and who practice them for the sake of a dramatic performance, or in order to accomplish a material objective. Some people are actually hard-hearted, but they are so practiced that they can begin to weep in an instant, as if they are genuinely crying. However, their crying is completely pretentious, and they are said to be slippery-minded.

Vrajanatha: What are adverse or contrary symptoms (pratipa)? 

Gosvami: Pratipa-bhava-abhasa is the semblance of bhava that occurs because of anger, fear and other emotions resulting from activities that are unfavorable towards Krsna. Kamsa and Sisupala are obvious examples.

Vrajanatha: Prabhu, we have understood vibhava, anubhava and sattvika-bhavas, as well as the difference between sattvika-bhava and anubhava. Now please describe the vyabhicari-bhavas.

Gosvami: There are thirty-three vyabhicari-bhavas. Vi means ‘distinctly’, abhi means ‘towards’, and cari means ‘moving’. These thirty-three bhavas are called vyabhicari because they move distinctly towards the sthayibhava. They are also called sancaribhavas, because they are communicated through words, limbs and sattva and thus travel (sancarita) throughout the system.  They are like waves in the nectar ocean of the sthayibhava, for they rise up, causing it to swell, and then they merge back into the ocean again.

     The thirty-three sancari-bhavas are: 1) regret or indifference (nirveda), 2) despair (visada), 3) humility (dainya), 4) physical and mental debility (glani), 5) fatigue (srama), 6) intoxication (mada), 7) pride (garva), 8) suspicion (sanka), 9) fear (trasa), 10) agitation (avega), 11) madness (unmada), 12) confusion or absence of mind (apasmrti), 13) disease (vyadhi), 14) fainting or delusion (moha), 15) death (mrtyu), 16) laziness (alasya), 17) inertness (jadya), 18) bashfulness (vrida), 19) concealment of emotions (avahittha), 20) remembrance (smrti), 21) deliberation or reasoning (vitarka), 22) anxiety (cinta), 23) resolve or wisdom (mati), 24) fortitude (dhrti), 25) jubilation (harsa), 26) ardent desire (autsukata), 27) ferocity (augrya), 28) impatience and indignation (amarsa), 29) envy (asuya), 30) restlessness (capalyam), 31) sleep (nidra), 32) deep sleep (supti), 33) awakening (bodha). 

     Some sancari-bhavas are independent (svatantra), and some are dependent (paratantra). There are two types of dependent sancari-bhavas: superior (vara) and inferior (avara). The superior category is also divided into two types, namely direct (saksat) and separated, or secondary (vyavahita). The independent sancari-bhavas are divided into three types: those that are devoid of rati (rati-sunya); subsequently contacting rati (ratianusparsana); and having a trace of rati (rati-gandha).

     When these bhavas appear in people who are averse to Krsna, or are perceived in inappropriate people or things, they are divided into two types, namely, unfavorable (pratikulya) and improper (anaucitya). All these bhavas have four conditions: generation (utpatti), union (sandhi), overcoming (sabalya), and pacification (santi).

Vrajanatha: Generation of bhava (bhava-utpatti) can be easily understood, but what is union (bhava-sandhi)?

Gosvami: Bhava-sandhi occurs when two bhavas – either of the same type or of different types – meet together. For example, when inertness caused by one’s loved one (ista) and inertness caused by something else both arise at the same time, this is an instance of the union of two identical emotions (sarupa-bhavasandhi).  Conversely, jubilation and apprehension arising simultaneously is an example of the union of two different types of bhava (bhinna-bhava-sandhi).

Vrajanatha: What is overcoming (bhava-sabalya)?

Gosvami: Bhava-sabalya is the clashing and jostling of many bhavas, in which one bhava suppresses another and becomes predominant. For instance, when Kamsa heard about Krsna, he

became angry and fearful at the same time; this is an example of bhava-sabalya.

Vrajanatha: What is pacification (bhava-santi)?

Gosvami: Bhava-santi occurs when an extremely powerful bhava becomes pacified. When the vraja-vasis could not see Krsna nearby, they were very anxious, but their apprehension was at

once pacified – that is, it went far away – when they heard the sound of His vamsi. This is the pacified condition of despondency (visada).

Vrajanatha: If we are qualified to know anything more about this subject, then please tell us.

Gosvami: Altogether, there are forty-one bhavas that cause transformations of the body and senses. These are the thirty-three vyabhicari-bhavas, one of the mukhya-sthayibhavas, and also the seven gauna-sthayibhavas that I shall describe later. These are all the propensities of the heart (citta-vrtti) that cause bhava to arise.

Vrajanatha: Which types of bhava do they arouse?

Gosvami: They produce the asta-sattvika-bhavas and the anubhavas that come in the category of vibhavas.

Vrajanatha: Are all the bhavas natural and inborn?

Gosvami: No, some of them are natural, while others are transitory.

The bhakta’s sthayibhava is his natural bhava, and the

vyabhicari-bhavas are transitory.

Vrajanatha: Do all bhaktas have the same type of bhava? 

Gosvami: There are different types of bhaktas according to the difference in the dispositions of their respective minds (manobhavas), so there is a gradation of awakening of bhavas, depending on the disposition of the mind. This awakening is of three types: garistha (heavy), laghistha (light), and gambhira (grave).  However, the nature of nectar is that it is always liquid, and the heart of the krsna-bhakta is like nectar by nature.

     I shall stop here for today. Tomorrow I will explain sthayibhava.

      Vijaya and Vrajanatha offered sastanga-dandavat to Sri Guru Gosvami. Taking his permission, they left for their place of residence.







Jaiva Dharma
Jaiva Dharma Table of Contents
Table of Contents


Return to[Bhaktivedanta Memorial Library Logo]