Vijaya Kumara relished the aspects of madhurya-bhava that he had heard the previous day, and he was still in this mood when he again presented himself before Sri Gurudeva. He offered pranama, and inquired from him submissively, “Prabhu, I have understood about vibhava, anubhava, sattvika-bhava and vyabhicaribhava, and also the svarupa of sthayibhava. However, although I have combined these four kinds of ingredients with sthayibhava, I still cannot awaken rasa. Why is this?”

Gosvami: Dear Vijaya, you will not be able to awaken rasa in sthayibhava until you have become conversant with the svarupa (intrinsic nature) of srngara-rasa.

Vijaya: What is srngara-rasa?

Gosvami: Srngara is the super-excellent and profuse transcendental charm of madhura-rasa. There are two kinds of srngara: vipralambha (love in separation) and sambhoga (meeting and performing joyful transcendental pastimes together).

Vijaya: I would like to know the characteristics of vipralambha. 

Gosvami: Vipralambha is the delightful emotion that manifests when the nayaka and the nayikas cannot fulfill their cherished and delightful longing for pastimes such as embracing and kissing each other. Vipralambha can occur in any state, either during meeting (milana) or separation (viyoga), and it especially nourishes the mood of sambhoga. Vipralambha is also called viraha or viyoga.

Vijaya: How does vipralambha nourish the mood of sambhoga? 

Gosvami: Dipping a colored cloth repeatedly in the same dye increasingly enhances the brilliance of the color. Similarly, vipralambha enhances the super-excellent brilliance of sambhogarasa.  Sambhoga cannot develop fully without vipralambha.

Vijaya: How many different types of vipralambha are there? 

Gosvami: There are four types: purva-raga, mana, prema-vaicittya and pravasa.

Vijaya: What is purva-raga?

Gosvami: Purva-raga is the fascination and enchantment that arises when the nayaka and nayika see each other and hear about each other before they actually meet.

Vijaya: What are the different ways of seeing each other? 

Gosvami: The nayika may see Krsna directly in person, see His form in a picture, or see Him in dreams.

Vijaya: And what are the different ways of hearing about each other? 

Gosvami: One may hear someone reciting the nayaka’s stutis and glorification, hear about Him from the lips of sakhis and messengers (dutis), and listen to songs praising Him.

Vijaya: What causes the appearance of this rati? 

Gosvami: When I explained sthayibhava before, I mentioned that the appearance of rati is caused by abhiyoga, visaya, sambandha, abhimana and so on. These are also the causes of rati appearing in purva-raga. 

Vijaya: Does this purva-raga manifest first in the vraja-nayaka, or in the vraja-nayikas?

Gosvami: There are many considerations here. In mundane affairs, the man generally initiates the longing for mutual attraction, because women are usually more shy than men. However, since women also have more prema, purva-raga manifests first in the doe eyed gopis. The bhakti-sastras state that purva-raga manifests first in the bhakta, and Sri Krsna reciprocates accordingly. The vrajadevis are the topmost of all bhaktas, so purva-raga manifests perfectly in them first.

     There is an ancient adage in regard to this trait of human nature – “The woman feels attraction first, and the man responds to her gesture.” However, there is no fault in reversing the above order, if the intensity of prema is the same in both of them. 

Vijaya: Please explain the sancari-bhavas of purva-raga.

Gosvami: Disease, doubt, jealousy, exertion, fatigue, depression, eagerness, humility, anxiety, sleep, awakening, dejection, inertia, madness, bewilderment and longing for death are all sancari- or vyabhicari-bhavas.

Vijaya: How many different types of purva-raga are there? 

Gosvami: There are three types: praudha (fully matured), samanjasa (intermediate), and sadharana (general).

Vijaya: What is praudha (fully matured) purva-raga? 

Gosvami: Purva-raga is praudha when it occurs in those possessed of samartha rati. On this level of purva-raga, the ten dasas (states) beginning from intense longing (lalasa) up to the desire for death (marana) can manifest. Since this purva-raga is praudha (fully matured), the states that manifest in it are also praudha. 

Vijaya: What are the ten dasas (states)?

Gosvami: They are as follows:

lalasodvega-jagaryas tanavam jadimatra tu

vaiyagryam vyadhir unmado moho mrtyur dasa dasa

                                                         (Ujjvala-nilamani, purva-raga division, 9)

          The ten states are intense longing (lalasa), anxiety (udvega), sleeplessness (jagarana),                  emaciation (tanava), inertia (jadata), impatience (vyagrata), illness (vyadhi), madness                 (unmada), delusion (moha), and longing for death (mrtyu). 

Vijaya: What is lalasa?

Gosvami: Lalasa is the intense longing to attain one’s heartfelt desire (abhista), and its symptoms are eagerness, fickleness, reeling, and heavy breathing.

Vijaya: What is udvega?

Gosvami: Udvega is perturbation of the mind, and it manifests itself through symptoms such as deep, heavy breathing; fickleness; motionlessness; thoughtfulness; tears; change of bodily color; and perspiration.

Vijaya: What is jagarana?

Gosvami: Jagarana is sleeplessness, and it gives rise to motionlessness, and dryness of the senses.

Vijaya: What is tanava?

Gosvami: Tanava is leanness of the body, and it is accompanied by symptoms such as bodily weakness and reeling of the mind. Some people read vilapa (lamentation) in place of tanava.  Vijaya: What is jadata (inertia)?

Gosvami: Jadata is shown by the absence of discrimination, by not responding even when asked something, and by the loss of ability to see and hear. It is also known as jadima.

Vijaya: What is vyagrata (impatience)?

Gosvami: The condition in which the transformations resulting from bhava do not manifest externally is called “gravity.” Vyagrata is the state in which this gravity is agitated and becomes intolerable. The symptoms of vyagrata are discrimination, despondency, regret, and jealousy.

Vijaya: What is vyadhi?

Gosvami: When one becomes acutely disappointed because one has not attained one’s cherished goal (abhista) – namely one’s beloved – the resultant state has symptoms such as becoming pale, and developing a high fever. This is called vyadhi, and it gives rise to anubhavas such as cold and shivering; desire; delusion; deep, long breathing; and falling unconscious on the ground.  Vijaya: What is unmada (madness)?

Gosvami: Unmada is the condition in which the nayika always mistakenly perceives her beloved in different objects everywhere – for example, taking a tamala tree to be Krsna, and embracing it.  It is the result of intense absorption of the mind in constant thoughts of one’s beloved, and of being overwhelmed by bhavas such as despondency, dejection, and humility. Its anubhavas are aversion, making jealous remarks to one’s beloved, long breathing, not blinking the eyes, and feeling extreme pangs of separation. 

Vijaya: What is moha?

Gosvami: Moha means to become unconscious, and its anubhavas are becoming motionless, falling unconscious and so on. 

Vijaya: What is mrtyu (longing for death)?

Gosvami: When the nayika is unable to meet with her kanta (beloved), even though she employs all means, such as sending loveletters and messages through sakhis, Cupid’s arrows cause such unbearably intense pangs of separation that she strives for death.  In this state, she gives away her cherished belongings to her sakhis.  Uddipana-vibhavas, such as bees, a mild breeze, moonlight, kadamba trees, clouds, lightning, and peacocks stimulate the development of this state of mrtyu.

Vijaya: What is samanjasa-purva-raga? Kindly explain. 

Gosvami: Samanjasa-purva-raga is the purva-raga that appears prior to meeting, and it is the specific characteristic of samanjasa rati.  In this condition, the nayika can gradually manifest the ten conditions, namely, longing (abhilasa), contemplation (cinta), remembrance (smrti), glorifying the qualities of the lover (gunakirtana), agitation and anxiety (udvega), lamentation (vilapa), madness (unmada), illness (vyadhi), inertia (jadata), and longing for death (mrtyu).

Vijaya: What is the meaning of abhilasa in this context? 

Gosvami: Abhilasa refers to the endeavors made to meet one’s beloved, and its anubhavas are decorating one’s body, approaching the beloved on the pretext of doing something else, and displaying one’s attraction (anuraga) towards Him.

Vijaya: What is the nature of cinta here?

Gosvami: Cinta is meditation on how to achieve association with one’s lover, such as informing him of one’s condition through a  brahmana, or sending a letter. Its symptoms are tossing and turning in bed; long, deep breathing; and gazing.

Vijaya: What is meant by smrti here?

Gosvami: Smrti is deep absorption in thoughts of the beloved whose association has been experienced by seeing Him and hearing about Him and His beauty, His ornaments, His pastimes and various blissful dealings, and everything related to Him. Its anubhavas are trembling, fatigue, change in bodily color, tears, detachment and renunciation, and deep breathing.

Vijaya: What is guna-kirtana?

Gosvami: Guna-kirtana is the glorification of the nayaka’s qualities, such as His form and beauty, and its anubhavas include trembling, horripilation, and choking of the voice. Anxiety, lamentation accompanied by madness, illness, inertia, and longing for death – these six symptoms are manifest in samanjasa-purvaraga to the same extent as they are in samanjasa rati. 

Vijaya: Now, please explain the symptoms of sadharana-purvaraga. 

Gosvami: Sadharana-purva-raga is exactly like sadharani rati. In this condition, the first six stages (dasas) – up to lamentation (vilapa) appear in a mild way. I do not feel the need to give examples here, because they are very simple. In this type of purva-raga, the lover and beloved exchange love-letters (kama-lekha-patra), garlands, and so on through confidential companions.

Vijaya: What are kama-lekha-patra (love-letters)? 

Gosvami: Love-letters are expressions of mutual loving sentiments in writing. There are two kinds: saksara, those written with letters or inscriptions of the alphabet, and niraksara, those written without using letters.

Vijaya: What are niraksara-kama-lekha?

Gosvami: An example of a symbolic love-letter is a half-moon shaped impression made with a nail on a red-colored leaf, without any other mark or letter on it.

Vijaya: What are saksara-kama-lekha (written love-letters)? 

Gosvami: Written love-letters are letters exchanged between the nayaka and nayika that they have written in their own handwriting, expressing their heartfelt emotional state in natural language.  These love-letters are written with colored inks which are obtained either from minerals from the mountains, by squeezing red flowers, or from kunkuma powder. Large flower-petals are used instead of paper for writing on, and the letters are tied with fibers from the stalks of lotuses.

Vijaya: What is the gradual development of purva-raga? 

Gosvami: Some say that affection is aroused at first simply by seeing one’s beloved. This is followed by contemplation, attachment, making a vow, desire for meeting, sleeplessness, emaciation, distaste for everything else, loss of shyness, madness, falling unconscious, and longing for death – in that order. Such is the extension of the intensity of kama (prema). Purva-raga manifests both in the nayaka and in the nayikas, but it appears in the nayikas first, and then in the nayaka.

Vijaya: What is mana?

Gosvami: Mana is the bhava that prevents the nayaka and nayika from engaging in their cherished activities of embracing, looking at each other, kissing, talking in a pleasing way, and so forth, even though they are both in the same place and they share a deep attachment for each other. Mana causes the appearance of sancaribhavas such as despondency, doubt, anger, restlessness, pride, jealousy, concealing the sentiments, guilt, and serious thoughtfulness.

Vijaya: What is the underlying principle of mana? 

: The basis of mana is pranaya; mana does not normally arise prior to the stage of pranaya, and even if it does, it is only in a contracted or unripe state. There are two types of mana: mana with a cause (sahetu) and mana without a cause (nirhetu).  Vijaya: What is mana with a cause (sahetu-mana)?

Gosvami: Irsya (jealous feelings) rise in the heart of the nayika when she sees or hears about the nayaka behaving with special affection for a nayika from the rival (vipaksa) or marginal (tatastha) groups. When this irsya (jealousy) becomes overwhelmed by pranaya, it develops into sahetu-mana. It has long been held that, just as there is no bhaya (fear) without sneha, similarly, there can be no irsya without pranaya. In this way, all these various expressions of mana only illuminate the intensity of the prema between the nayikas and the nayaka.

     The nayika’s heart is imbued with bhavas such as intense loving possessiveness for her beloved (susakhya). When she sees the nayaka, who is exceedingly attached to her, favoring a rival nayika and sporting with her, she becomes restless and impatient. Once, in Dvaraka, Sri Krsna presented a parijata flower to Sri Rukmini.  However although all the queens heard about this incident, only Satyabhama’s heart was overpowered by mana. Satyabhama’s mana was aroused when she understood the unique position afforded to her rival.

Vijaya: How many ways are there of discovering the special position of rivals (vipaksa-vaisistya)?

Gosvami: There are three ways: hearing (sruta), inference (anumati), and seeing (drsta).

Vijaya: What is hearing (sruta)?

Gosvami: Sruta-vipaksa-vaisistya comes about when the nayika hears from a priya-sakhi or from a parrot about the pastimes of her beloved with a nayika from the opposing party.  Vijaya: What is anumati-vipaksa-vaisistya?

Gosvami: Anumati-vipaksa-vaisistya occurs when the nayika sees that the body of her lover bears evidence of amorous pastimes with another nayika, or when she hears her lover inadvertently say the name of a rival nayika, or when she sees her rival nayika in a dream.  The marks of union seen on the bodies of the nayaka and a rival nayika are called bhoganka, and speaking the name of a rival nayika is called gotra-skhalana. When this occurs, the nayika feels that it is more painful than death.

Vijaya: I would like to hear an example of gotra-skhalana. 

Gosvami: Once, when Krsna was returning to His home after spending time with Srimati Radha, He suddenly met with Candravali. Sri Krsna inquired from her, “O Radhe, is everything fine with you?” When Candravali heard Krsna speaking like this, she replied rather angrily, “O Kamsa, are You well?” Krsna was surprised, and asked her, “O beautiful one, why are you so bewildered?” Candravali became flushed with anger, and promptly replied, “Where have You seen Radha around here?” Then Krsna understood the situation, and thought to Himself, “Oh, I have addressed Candravali as Radha by mistake.” Understanding His own mistake, He felt ashamed and lowered His face. He was also smiling mildly to see Candravali’s spontaneous and cunning eloquence, which resulted from her irsya (jealousy). May this Hari, who dispels all miseries, protect us all.

Vijaya: What is understanding the particular position of a rival through a dream (svapna-drsta-vipaksa-vaisistya)?

Gosvami: The activities of Krsna and His vidusaka friends while dreaming are examples of this. For example on one occasion, Krsna and Candravali were sleeping on the same bed after amorous pastimes in the krida-kunja. While dreaming, Krsna said, “O Radhe!  I promise You that You alone are My most beloved; only You are inside and outside My heart; only You are in front of Me, and behind Me, and everywhere. What more can I say? Only You are present in My house, in Govardhana, and in its forested valleys.” When Candravali heard Sri Krsna speaking like this in His dream, she got up from the bed due to mana arising in her heart, and walked away.

     Now here is one of Madhumangala’s dreams. Once he was sleeping on a raised platform outside a kunja in which Krsna and Candravali were engaged in happy pastimes, and in his dream he said, “O Madhavi, Krsna is talking very expertly and flattering Padma’s sakhi Candravali just to deceive her. Try to bring Radha here quickly, so that She can meet with Krsna. Don’t worry.” When Candravali heard Madhumangala speaking like this in his dream, she became distressed. At that time, Padma was sitting in a nearby kunja, and when she saw Candravali’s condition, she said to Saibya, ”Oh sakhi, just see how miserable Candravali’s face has become since she heard Madhumangala talking in his dream! She has lowered her head and she is burning with grief.” Vijaya: What is directly seeing (darsana)?

Gosvami: This means that the nayika directly sees her nayaka engaged in pastimes with another nayika.

Vijaya: What is causeless mana (nirhetuka-mana)? 

Gosvami: Causeless mana develops between the nayaka and nayika when pranaya is enhanced by an apparent cause for mana, although there is no cause for mana in reality. Panditas have concluded that mana is the effect of pranaya, and that causeless mana is nothing but an extension of pranaya arising from its vilasa (joyful pastimes).  They call this causeless mana pranaya-mana’. The previous authorities (panditas) also maintain that the movements and dealings of prema are crooked, like the movement of a snake.  Therefore, two kinds of mana are evident in the dealings between the nayaka and the nayika: mana without a cause (nirhetu) and mana with a cause (sahetu). The vyabhicari-bhava in this rasa is concealing one’s emotions and feelings (avahittha).

Vijaya: How is causeless mana pacified?

Gosvami: This mana is pacified by itself; it does not need any remedial measures. When laughter occurs, then the mana disappears automatically. However, to pacify sahetu-mana, the nayaka has to adopt many appropriate means, such as sama (consoling words), bheda (diplomatic remarks), kriya (taking an oath), dana (presentations), nati (bowing down), upeksa (neglect and apparent indifference), and rasantara (a sudden change of mood). The sign that the nayika’s mana has been pacified is that the nayaka wipes away her tears, and there is laughter and so on. 

Vijaya: What is sama (consolation with words)? 

Gosvami: Sama is the use of sweet, pleasing words and promises to pacify priya (the beloved).

Vijaya: What is bheda (diplomatic remarks)?

Gosvami: There are two types of bheda: one is expressing one’s greatness by various gestures and insinuations, and the other is rebuking the nayika indirectly through sakhis.

Vijaya: What is meant by dana (presentation)? 

Gosvami: Dana is the deceitful presentation of ornaments and other gifts.

Vijaya: What is nati (humble submission)?

Gosvami: Nati means to fall at the nayika’s feet with all possible humility.

Vijaya: What is upeksa (neglect)?

Gosvami: Upeksa (neglect or indifference) is the mood of apparently abandoning the nayika when all other means of pacifying her mana have proved fruitless. Others say that upeksa refers to using remarks with double meaning to please the nayika. 

Vijaya: What does your expression rasantara (change of thoughts) mean?

Gosvami: Rasantara is the sudden creation of fear in the nayikas

mind by words, or by some natural occurrence. There are two types

of rasantara: that which occurs by itself, and that which is created

by the sharp intelligence of the nayaka.

     Here is an example of a change of mind that takes place spontaneously: Once, Krsna was unable to pacify Bhadra’s mana, despite various endeavors. Suddenly there was a tremendous sound of thunder, which frightened Bhadra so much that she at once embraced Krsna who was sitting in front of her.

     Here is an example of pacifying mana by an intelligent plan: Once, Radhika was deeply absorbed in mana. Krsna, who is supremely playful by nature, saw that He could not pacify Her by any means, so He played a charming trick. He personally made a very beautiful flower garland, and placed it around the neck of Srimatiji. She angrily took the garland off Her neck and threw it away, and by the will of providence it fell on Krsna. He immediately screwed up His eyes, made a face as if He had been badly injured, and sat in one corner looking very depressed. Seeing this, Radhaji became restless and anxious, and She held Krsna’s shoulders with Her two hands. Then Krsna laughed and enfolded Her in His strong embrace.

Vijaya: Are there any other means to pacify mana? 

Gosvami: Apart from these methods, the mana of the vraja-gopis can be pacified in special times and places, and with the sound of the murali, even without using sama and so on. Mild mana can be pacified without much effort, whereas pacifying moderate mana requires careful efforts. The most deeply rooted mana (durjayamana) is extremely difficult to pacify.

     The gopis use various remarks to chastise Krsna when they are in mana, for example, Vama (ungrateful one, who acts unfavorably), Durlila-siromani (crest-jewel of the mischief-makers), Kitava-raja (King of cheaters), Khala-srestha (supremely wicked), Maha-dhurta (extremely crooked ruffian), Kathora (cruel and hard-hearted), Nirlajja (shameless), Atidurlalita (extremely hard to please), Gopi-kamuka (one who lusts after the gopis), Ramani-cora (one who steals the chastity of the gopis), Gopidharma-nasaka (one who spoils the religious principles and chastity of the gopis), Gopa-sadhvi-vidambaka (one who mocks the chastity of the gopis), Kamukesvara (Lord of lust), Gadh-timira (one who puts others in the darkness of delusion), Syama (one who has a very dark complexion, which puts others in the darkness of illusion), Vastra-cora (one who steals the clothes of the gopis), Govardhana-upatyaka-taskara (one who steals the chastity of gopis in the hills of Govardhana).

Vijaya: What is prema-vaicittya?

Gosvami: Prema-vaicittya refers to heartfelt pangs of separation that the nayika feels, even when she is very close to the nayaka, and it is the intrinsic nature of prema in its highest state. This super-excellent feature results in a type of helplessness or agitation of mind that creates an illusion of being separate from Krsna, and this unnatural state is called vaicittya.

Vijaya: What is pravasa?

Gosvami: Pravasa is the obstruction or hindrance between the nayaka and nayika when they have been together and are now separated, either because they live in different countries or different villages, or because of a difference in mood (rasantara), or because they are in different places. In pravasa, one experiences all the vyabhicari-bhavas of srngara-rasa except jubilation, pride, madness, and shyness. There are two types of pravasa: that which is intentional, and that which is not pre-planned, or which takes place by force of circumstance.

Vijaya: What is intentional pravasa?

Gosvami: Intentional pravasa takes place when the nayaka goes away because of some obligation or responsibility. By His very nature, Krsna is obliged to His bhaktas – for example, the moving and non-moving jivas of Vrndavana, the Pandavas, and Srutadeva in Mithila – to give them full happiness and good instructions, and to fulfill their desires. Pravasa has two further divisions: one is just going out of sight, and the other is going to some distant place (sudura). There are three types of sudurapravasa, corresponding to the three phases of time: past, present and future. During sudura-pravasa, the nayaka and nayika exchange messages.

Vijaya: What is unintentional pravasa?

Gosvami: Unintentional pravasa is the sudura-pravasa caused by subordination to others, or by circumstances that are beyond one’s control. There are various types of subordination, classified as divya, adivya and divyadviya. The ten states that occur in this pravasa are: thoughtfulness, sleeplessness, anxiety, becoming thinner, darkening of the limbs and face, incoherent talk, illness, madness, bewilderment, and longing for death. In vipralambha caused by pravasa, these ten states manifest even in Krsna. 

     My dear Vijaya, although various states appear as anubhavas in the different distinct types of prema, I have not mentioned them all. Generally, all of these states appear as the effect of the gradations of prema, beginning from sneha and developing through mana, pranaya, raga, anuraga, and bhava up to mahabhava. However, the stage of mohana, an unparalleled state which I have already explained, manifests in Srimati Radhika. Some of the authors of rasa-sastra have accepted vipralambha related to compassion (karuna) as a separate division, but I have not explained this rasa separately because it is another type of pravasa. 

     As Vijaya was contemplating Sri Guru Gosvami’s instructions on vipralambha, he said to himself, “Vipralambha-rasa is not an independent phenomenon or a self-perfected rasa; it simply promotes and nourishes the mood of sambhoga. For a jiva bound to worldliness, such pangs of separation (vipralambha-rasa) manifest in a special manner, and this is ultimately favorable for his pleasure in meeting (sambhoga-rasa). However, in the eternal transcendental rasa, the bhava of vipralambha exists eternally, to some extent. In fact, the variegatedness of spiritual pastimes cannot be invoked to its fullest possible degree without vipralambha.”






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