Vijaya Kumara, with folded hands, inquired from his Gurudeva about sambhoga-rasa. He replied affectionately.
Gosvami: There are two types of krsna-lila: prakata (manifest) and aprakata (unmanifest). The states of separation (viraha) in vipralambha-rasa that I have already described correspond to prakata-lila. However, in aprakata Vrndavana, there is no separation of the vraja-devis from Sri Hari, who is eternally engaged in His variegated, blissful lila such as the rasa-lila. It is written in the Mathura-mahatmya: “Krsna plays eternally with the gopas and gopis there.” Since the verb ‘plays’ (krid) is in the present tense, it is to be understood that Krsna’s lilas are eternal. Therefore, in the aprakata-lila of Goloka or Vrndavana, there is no separation caused by Krsna’s making His residence in a distant place (dura-pravasa). Love in union (sambhoga) exists eternally there.
The nayaka and nayikas are respectively the visaya (object) and asraya (abode) of love, and the term sambhoga refers to the wonderful bhava that arises from the rapture of their loving dealings –such as seeing each other, talking together, and touching each other – the object of which is solely to give pleasure to each other. There are two types of sambhoga: mukhya and gauna
Vijaya: What is mukhya-sambhoga?
Gosvami: Mukhya (principal) sambhoga is the sambhoga that takes place in the awakened state. There are four kinds of mukhya- sambhoga: 1) sanksipta-sambhoga (brief sambhoga), which takes place after purva-raga; 2) sankirna-sambhoga (restricted sambhoga), which takes place after mana is pacified; 3) sampanna-sambhoga (enriched sambhoga), which takes place after the nayaka and nayika have been somewhat distant from each other for some time; and 4) samrddhiman sambhoga (flourishing sambhoga), which takes place after being separated by a long distance.
Vijaya: Please describe sanksipta-sambhoga in more detail.
Gosvami: Sanksipta-sambhoga is characterized by reverence and shyness between nayaka and nayika. As a result, the expressions of their mutual love – such as kissing and embracing – are brief and hasty.
Vijaya: Please explain sankirna-sambhoga.
Gosvami: In sankirna-sambhoga, the nayika’s endeavors for amorous pastimes are expressed with simultaneous feelings of pain and pleasure. This is compared to the relish of chewing hot sugar cane; although it is sweet, it also burns. This state results from her remembering that the nayaka deceived her, or from seeing marks of amorous enjoyment on the nayaka’s body, or from hearing from others about His amorous activities with other women.
Vijaya: What is sampanna-sambhoga?
Gosvami: Sampanna-sambhoga takes place when the nayaka returns to be with the nayika after being a short distance away. There are two types: agati and pradurbhava. Agati is the appearance of the nayaka before the nayika during the routine of general, everyday life; for example, the gopis have darsana of Krsna regularly in the evening when He returns from grazing the cows. Pradurbhava refers to Krsna’s sudden appearance before the gopis when they are extremely overwhelmed by prema. An example is Sri Krsna’s sudden appearance before the gopis when they were lamenting in separation because He had disappeared from the rasa-lila. In pradurbhava there is a festival of happiness arising from the fulfillment of all one’s cherished desires.
Vijaya: What is samrddhiman sambhoga?
Gosvami: It is not possible for the nayaka and nayikas to see each other and meet together all the time, because they are subordinate to others and are bound by social etiquette. The profuse bliss that They experience when They meet suddenly, after being released from the influence of external pressures, is called samrddhiman sambhoga. There are two types of sambhoga-rasa, namely concealed (channa), and manifest (prakasa), but there is no need to explain them at present.
Vijaya: What is gauna-sambhoga?
Gosvami: Gauna-sambhoga refers to the particular pastimes of Sri Krsna that are experienced during dreams. There are two kinds of dreams: general and special. I have already described general dreams in the context of vyabhicari-bhava. The sambhoga in special dreams is experienced as real and supremely amazing, and it is endowed with sthayibhavas and sancari-bhavas like those of the waking state; in other words, it is exactly like sambhoga while one is awake. Gauna-sambhoga has the same four divisions as mukhya-sambhoga: 1) sanksipta-sambhoga (brief sambhoga), 2) sankirna-sambhoga (restricted sambhoga), 3) sampanna-sambhoga (enriched sambhoga), and 4) samrddhiman sambhoga (flourishing sambhoga).
Vijaya: No factual events occur when one is dreaming, so how is samrddhiman sambhoga at all possible in dreams?
Gosvami: The svarupa (essential nature) of a dream is the same as that of the waking state. This is demonstrated by the example of Usa and Aniruddha. While Usa was asleep in King Bana’s inner royal chambers at Sonitapura, she was practically experiencing the pleasure of union with Aniruddha in her dream. At the very same time, Aniruddha was dreaming in his sleeping chamber in Dvaraka-puri, and was also enjoying the pleasure of vilasa with Usa. Ordinary people of the mundane realm do not have such experiences.
We can substantiate this fact still further by the evidence of direct perception, for there are examples of siddha-bhaktas having supremely wonderful dreams in which they receive articles such as ornaments which are still with them when they wake up; this is because such dreams are themselves a reality. Similarly, Krsna and His kantas also have unimpeded dreams in which sambhoga actually takes place. These dreams are of two types: 1) the dream that occurs while one is awake (jagarayamana-svapna), and 2) the condition of wakefulness that occurs while one is dreaming (svapnayamana-jagara). The dreams of gopis who have transcended the fourth state, namely samadhi, and attained the fifth state, namely prema, are not false like the dreams that are caused by the mode of passion. Rather, the dreams of the gopis are aprakrta, nirguna, and absolutely real. Consequently, it is perfectly possible for samrddhiman sambhoga to take place in the highly astonishing, aprakrta dream pastimes of Krsna and His beloved gopis.
Vijaya: Please describe the anubhavas of sambhoga.
Gosvami: The anubhavas of sambhoga are: seeing each other (sandarsana), talking (jalpana), touching (sparsana), blocking each others’ way in a solitary place (raha-vartma-rodhana), rasa-lila, pleasure pastimes in Vrndavana (vrndavana-krida), playing in the Yamuna (yamuna-jale keli), boat pastimes (nauka-vilasa), pastimes of stealing flowers (puspa-caurya-lila), pastimes of demanding taxes (dana-lila), hide-and-seek in the kunjas (kunje lukocuri-khela), drinking honey wine (madhu-pana), Krsna dressing in female attire (stri-vesa-dharana), pretending to sleep (kapata-nidra), gambling (dyuta-krida), pulling off each others’ garments (vastraakarsana),
kissing (cumbana), embracing (alingana), making nailmarks (nakha-arpana), drinking the nectar of the lips that are like bimba fruit (bimba-adhara-sudha-pana), and enjoying amorous
union (nidhu-vane ramana-samprayoga).
Vijaya: Prabhu, lila-vilasa is distinct from amorous union (samprayoga). Which of these two gives more bliss?
Gosvami: There is more bliss in lila-vilasa than in samprayoga.
Vijaya: How do Sri Krsna’s beloved gopis address Him in a loving mood (pranaya)?
Gosvami: The sakhis address Sri Krsna with great affection as, “He Gokulananda, He Govinda, He Gosthendra-Kula-candra (the moon of the family of the King of cowherd men), He Pranesvara (the Lord of my life), He Sundarottamsa (whose chest and shoulders are very beautiful), He Nagara Siromani (O crest jewel of lovers), He Vrndavana-candra, He Gokula-raja, and He Manohara (O thief of my mind).”
Vijaya: Prabhu, I understand that there are two types of krsnalila, namely prakata (manifest) and aprakata (unmanifest), but that they are still one and the same tattva. Now, please explain to me the types of prakata-vraja-lila.
Gosvami: There are two types of prakata-vraja-lila: nitya (eternal) and naimittika (occasional). The Vraja pastimes that take place during the eight periods of the day and night (asta-kaliya-lila) are actually nitya-lila, whereas Krsna’s killing Putana, and His long sojourn away from Vraja in Mathura and Dvaraka, are naimittikalilas.
Vijaya: Prabhu, please instruct me about the nitya-lila.
Gosvami: We find two types of descriptions: one by the rsis and the other by the Gosvamis of Vrndavana. Which of these would you like to hear?
Vijaya: I would like to hear the description in the slokas that the rsis have composed.
nisantah pratah purvahno madhyahas caparahnakah
sayam pradoso-ratris ca kalastau ca yatha-kramam
madhyahno yamini cobhau yan muhurttam ito smrtau
tri-muhurttam ita jneya nisanta-pramukhah pare
The asta-kaliya-lila of Vraja takes place during eight periods of the day and night. These are 1) nisanta (the end of the night just before dawn), 2) pratah (morning), 3) purvahna (forenoon), 4) madhyahna (noon), 5) aparahna (afternoon), 6) sayam (late afternoon and dusk), 7) pradosa (evening), and 8) ratri (night). The ratri-lila and madhyahna-lilas both last for six muhurtas, while the other six periods each last for three muhurtas.
Sri Sadasiva has explained this asta-kaliya-lila in Sanat-kumarasamhita. He has specified which services are to be rendered at particular times of the day, in accordance with the asta-kaliya-lila. Thus, one should remember the appropriate lila at the appropriate time.
Vijaya: Prabhu, may I please hear the statements of Jagad-guru Sadasiva?
Gosvami: Listen carefully:
parakiyabhimaninyas / tathasya ca priyah janah
pracurenaiva bhavena / ramayanti nija-priyam
Sadasiva said, “Sri Hari’s beloved damsels in Vraja, who have the sentiments of parakiya- bhava towards Him, please the darling of their hearts with profuse moods of divya-prema.
atmanam cintayet tatra / tasam madhye manoramam
rupa-yauvana-sampannam / kisorim pramadakrtim
He Narada! You should contemplate your atma-svarupa in the following manner. You are a kisori (pre-adolescent) gopi and you reside in the very heart of transcendental Vrndavana, amidst the beloved damsels of Krsna, who are endowed with paramour sentiment for Him. You have a charming youthful form, and enchanting, intoxicating beauty.
nana-silpa-kalabhijnam / krsna-bhoganurupinim
prarthitam api krsnena / tato bhoga-paran-mukhim
You are accomplished in many fine arts for Sri Krsna’s pleasure. Yet even if Krsna earnestly requests to meet with you, you are ever averse to pleasure unrelated to the pleasure of your Svamini.
radhikanucarim nityam / tat-sevana-parayanam
krsnad ’apy adhikam prema / radhikayam prakurvatim
You are the maidservant of Sri Krsna’s most beloved consort Srimati Radhika, and are wholly and exclusively dedicated to Her seva. You always have more prema for Sri Radhika than for Sri Krsna.
prityanudivasam yatnat / tayoh sangama-karinim
Everyday with much endeavor you arrange for the youthful couple’s meeting, and remain forever content with the ecstatic bliss of Their service.
ity atmanam vicintyaiva / tatra sevam samacaret
brahma-muhurttam arabhya / yavat tu syan mahanisi
Thus, while conceiving of your atma-svarupa in this particular way, you should painstakingly render manasi seva in transcendental Vrndavana from brahma-muhurta to the end of nisanta-lila (pastimes at night’s end).”
Vijaya: What are the activities of nisanta-lila?
sri vrnda uvaca
madhye vrndavane ramye / pancasat-kunja-mandite
kalpa-vrksa-nikunjesu / divya-ratnamaye grhe
Sri Vrnda-devi said, “In the midst of enchanting Vrndavana, surrounded by fifty kunjas of desire trees, lies a bower-cottage of cintamani gems.
nidritau tisthitas talpe / nividalingitau mithah
mad-ajna-karibhih pascat / paksibhir bodhitav api
There on a bed of fragrant flowers, yugala-kisora Vrsabhanudulali Srimati Radharani and Vrajendra-nandana Syamasundara Sri Krsna lie asleep in a firm embrace. Then according to my instructions, the birds attempt to awaken Them by a rousing chorus of melodious warbling songs.
gadhalingana-nirbhedam / aptau tad-bhanga-katarau
no matim kurvatas talpat / samutthatum manag api
However, the two lovers have become so intrinsically, unbreakably one through Their deep embrace that even the thought of breaking up evokes alarm. Indeed, They are unable in the slightest to fix their minds on rising.
tatas ca sarika-sabdaih / suka-sabdais ca tau muhuh
bodhitau vividhair vakyaih / sva-talpad udatisthatam
However, by the repeated and ingenious urgings of the suka and sarika (male and female parrots), They at last awaken and rise from Their bed.
upavistau tato drstva / sakhyas talpe mudanvitau
pravisya kurvanti sevam / tat-kalasyocitam tayoh
Seeing Radha-Krsna sitting blissfully on the bed, the sakhis happily approach Them and render the various services required at that time.
punas ca sarika-vakyair / utthaya tau sva-talpatah
agatau sva-sva-bhavanam / bhity-utkanthakulau mithah
But just thereafter, through further prompting from the sarika, the Divine Couple inevitably arise from that bed and rush to Their respective homes, full of anxiety provoked by the transcendental rasas of fear and restlessness.”
Vijaya: What are the pratah kaliya-lila (morning pastimes)?
pratas ca bodhito matra/ talpad utthaya sa-tvarah
krtva krsno danta-kastham / baladeva-samanvitah
In the morning, Yasoda Maiya calls Krsna, who then gets up from His bed and brushes His teeth with a twig in the company of Sri Baladeva.
matranumodito yati / gosalam dohanotsukah
radha ‘pi bodhita vipra / vayasyabhih sva-talpatah
Then with her permission, They go to the cowshed, eager to milk Their cows. O sage, Sri Radha also leaves Her bed in the morning, awakened by Her sakhis.
utthaya danta-kasthadi / krtva ‘bhyangam samacaret
snana-vedim tato gatva / snapita lalitadibhih
After She has brushed Her pearl-like teeth with an astringent twig, Her sakhis massage Her body with aromatic oils. After that, She enters the bathing chamber and sits upon an elevated asana while Lalita and the other principal sakhis perform abhiseka of Her Divine Form.
bhusa-grham vrajet tatra / vayasya bhusayanty api
bhusanair vividhair divyair / gandha-malyanulepanaih
Next, She enters the ornament palace. There, Her sakhis apply divine creams and scents, decorate Her with various divine garments and ornaments, adorn Her with pleasing, fragrant garlands and cool Her brow with the pulp of sandal.
tatas ca sva-janais tasyah / susrusam prapya yatnatah
paktum ahuyate sv-annam / sa-sakhi sa yasodaya
When Srimati Radhika has thus received complete and attentive service from Her sakhis, by Yasoda Maiya’s request She departs for Nanda-bhavan to cook delicious food for Sri Krsna” Hearing this, Narada asked:
katham ahuyate devi / pakartham sa yasodaya
satisu pakatrisu ca / rohini-pramukhasv api
“He Devi. There are many expert cooks headed by Rohini Maiya; why then does Mother Yasoda invite Radharani to cook in Nanda-bhavan?”
durvasasa svayam datto / varas tasyai muda mune
iti katyayani-vaktrat / srutam asin maya pura
Sri Vrnda-devi said, “O Narada, I formerly heard from Bhagavati Katyayani that Durvasa Muni bestowed the following boon upon Srimati Radhika:
tvaya yat pacyate devi / tad-annam mad-anugrahat
mistam svadv-amrta-sparddhim bhoktrr ayuskaram tatha
‘He Devi! By my mercy, whatever food You cook will rival the nectar of the gods. Furthermore it will bless the eater with great longevity.’
ity ahvayati tam nityam / yasoda putra-vatsala
ayusman me bhavet putrah / svadu-lobhat tatha sati
Thus putra-vatsala Yasoda, praying, ‘Let my son be longlived!’ daily invites Srimati Radhika to Nanda-bhavan to cook. She also has an intense greed to taste that delectable food.
svasranumodita sapi / hrsta nandalayam vrajet
sva-sakhi-prakara tatra / gatva pakam karoti ca
Taking permission from Her mother-in-law, Srimati Radhika blissfully comes to the home of Nanda accompanied by Her sakhis to prepare the kitchen.
krsno’pi dugdhva gah kascit / dohayitva janaih paraih
agacchati pitur vakyat / sva-grham sakhibhir vrtah
“Meanwhile, Sri Krsna milks a few cows Himself and then, on His father’s order, He engages others to milk the remaining cows and returns home with His friends.
abhyanga-mardanam krtva / dasaih samsnapito muda
dhauta-vastra-dharah sragvi / candanakta-kalevarah
Arriving home, His servants gleefully massage His divine body with oil and bathe Him. Then they dress Him with fresh clothes, smear His body beautifully with sandal paste, and decorate Him with fragrant garlands.
dvi-vastra-baddha-kesas ca / grivabhalo-parisphuran
candrakara-sphurad-bhalas / tilakaloka-ranjitah
Krsna wears two garments. One covers His lower body and one His chest. Cascading around His graceful neck and forehead, His charming, curly hair brilliantly expands His unprecedented, sweet beauty. On His effulgent forehead, which resembles the half-moon, His servants draw a charming tilaka sign which delights the eyes of all.
kankanangada-keyura / ratna-mudra-lasat-karah
muktahara-sphurad-vakso / makarakrti-kundalah
On His wrists, Sri Krsna wears bejeweled bracelets, and on His arms, precious jeweled bangles. On His hands, signet rings shine. On His chest, a pearl necklace glistens, and dazzling makara-shaped sapphire earrings swing from His ears.
muhur akarito matra / pravised bhojanalayam
avalambya karam sakhyur / baladevam anuvratah
After this, Sri Krsna hears Yasomati repeatedly calling Him. So, surrounded by His sakhas and holding one of them by the hand, He follows His elder brother Baladeva to the bhojanalaya (dining hall).
bhunkte ’pi vividhannani / matra ca sakhibhir vrtah
hasayan vividhair hasyaih / sakhims tair hasati svayam
There, in His sakhas’ company, He relishes all the preparations prepared by Radhika and Her sakhis. Making many jokes, He makes His friends laugh, and He also laughs with them.
ittham bhuktva tathacamya / divya-khattopari ksanam
visramet sevakair dattam / tambulam vibhajann adan
When He has finished His meal, He takes acamana (mouthwash) and His servants offer Him tambula, which He distributes among His sakhas. Thereafter, He rests on a transcendental bed for some time and chews the tambula.”
Vijaya: Please describe the purvahna-lila (forenoon pastimes).
gopa-vesa-dharah krsno / dhenu-vrnda-purahsarah
vrajavasi-janaih pritya / sarvair anugatah pathi
“Sri Krsna, attired in gopa-vesa, then leaves the village with the cows for cow-grazing. At that time, all the vraja-vasis follow Him some distance from the village, drawn by their intense love and affection for Him.
pitaram mataram natva / netrantena priya-ganam
yatha-yogyam tatha canyan / sa nivarttya vanam vrajet
Speaking respectfully, Sri Krsna offers pranama to His father and mother. At the same time, through the corner of His eyes He glances meaningfully at His beloved gopis and thrills their hearts. Then after paying due respect to those who have followed Him, Vamsidhari Syama proceeds with His sakhas towards the pastures.
vanam pravisya sakhibhih / kridayitva ksanam tatah
viharair vividhais tatra / vane vikridato muda
Having entered the forest, for some time He creates many kinds of games and gleefully sports with His sakhas.
vancayitva ca tan sarvan / dvitraih priya-sakhair vrtah
sanketakam vrajed dharsat / priya-sandarsanotsakah
Then, cleverly engaging them in activities such as pasturing the cows, He tricks them and leaves them all aside. He then proceeds jubilantly with two or three priya-sakhas towards the rendezvous (sanketa) with His beloved gopis eager to see His priya.”
Vijaya: Please describe the madhyahna-lila (mid-day pastimes).
sapi krsne vanam yantam / drstva sva-grham agata
suryadi-puja-vyajena / kusumadyahrti-cchalat
“After watching Sri Krsna leave for the forest, His most beloved consort Srimati Radhika returns to Her home. Then, on the pretext of performing Surya-puja or collecting
vancayitva gurun yati / priya-sangecchaya vanam
ittham tau bahu-yatnena / militva sva-ganais tatah
…She tricks Her elders in order to have sanga with Her priyatama Syama.
Accompanied by Her sakhis, She goes to the same forest to meet Him. Thus after
much endeavor, Radha and Krsna meet again…
viharair vividhais tatra / vane vikridito muda
hindolika samarudhau / sakhibhir dolitau kvacit
…and blissfully enact various sportive paramananda-lila together in the forest. At times, Radha and Krsna sit on a swing and are swung by Their sakhis.
kvacid venum kara-srastam / priyayapahrtam harih
anvesayann upalabdho / vipralabdho priya-ganaih
Sometimes (while feeling slightly drowsy) Sri Hari’s venu slips from His fingers
and is stolen by His priya Sri Radha. Despite restlessly searching on all sides for it, He finally becomes disappointed and gives up hope. At that point the beloved gopis
offer the venu into His lotus hands,
hasito bahudha tabhir / hasitas tatra tisthati
vasanta-rtuna justam / vanam khandam kvacin muda
laughing and making witty remarks. At that time Krsnalooks splendid as
He delights the gopis by teasing them,joking and countering their impudent
remarks. Sometimes, Srimati Radhika and Sri Krsna enter a particular section
the forest that is attended by the spring season personified.
pravisya candanambhobhih / kunkumadi-jalair api
nisincato yantra-muktais / tat-pankair limpato mithah
There, They use silver syringes filled with colored water mixed with fragrant substances, such as kunkuma and candana, to drench each other; and at other times, They smear the paste of candana, kunkuma and so on over each other’s limbs.
sakhyo’py evam visincanti / tas ca tau sincatah punah
vasanta-vayu-justesu / vana-khandesu sarvatah
In the beauty and splendor of that forest, which is served on all sides by soothing spring breezes, the sakhis also join in Their transcendental sports by assisting Them to bathe one another with that fragrant water...
tat-tat-kalocitair nana-viharaih sa-ganair dvija
srantau kvacid vrksa-mulam / asadya muni-sattama
O best of the munis, Srimati Radha and Krsna and theirconfidential sakhas
and sakhis perform various blissful sports for that time. Feeling fatigued from
performing Their pastimes in this lively way, They sit beneath a tree…
upavisyasane divye / madhu-panam pracakratuh
tato madhu-madonmattau / nidraya militeksanau
…on a divine throne and enjoy drinking nectarean honeywine (madhu). Becoming intoxicated by that madhu, They close Their eyes in sleep for some time.
mithah pani-samalambya / kama-bana-prasangatau
riramsur visatah kunje / skhalat-padabjakau pathi
Holding each other’s hands Radha-Syama become pierced by the arrows of Kamadeva, and desiring to enjoy with one another, Their lotus feet stumble from the path and They enter the kunja.
kridatas ca tatas tatra / karini-yuthapau yatha
sakhyo’pi madhubhir matta / nidraya piditeksanau
Thereafter, Srimati Radhika and Syamasundara freely consort with each other
in the kunja, like the king of elephants and his mate. The sakhis, who are also
intoxicated with madhu, proceed drowsily…
abhito manju-kunjesu / sarva evapi sisyire
prthag ekena vapusa / krsno’pi yugapad vibhuh
…to various charming kunjas nearby. By the influence of His inconceivable potency, Sri Krsna manifests Himself in many forms, and simultaneously meets individually with each sakhi.
sarvasam sannidhim gacchet / priyaya prerito muhuh
ramayitva ca tah sarvah / karinir gaja-rad iva
Just as an elephant infatuated by lust does not feel tiredwhen he unites with
a number of she-elephants, at the same time that He is giving further and
inspiration to Sri Radha, Sri Krsna consorts with many beloved sakhis.
priyaya ca tatha tabhih / kridarthan ca saro vrajet
such amorous sports with Srimati Radhika and Her confidential sakhis, They enter a lake for water sports.”
vrnde sri-nanda putrasya / madhurya-kridane katham
aisvaryasya prakaso’bhut / iti me chindi samsayam
Narada said, “O Vrnda, how is it possible for the aisvarya feature to manifest in the madhurya of Sri Nandanandana’s pastimes? Please dispel this doubt.”
mune madhuryam apy asti / lila-saktih hares tu sa
taya prthak kridam gopa-gopikabhih samam harih
Sri Vrnda-devi said, “O Muni, Sri Hari’s madhurya is actually His lila-sakti.
With this sakti He performs His most attractive and sweet pastimes. It is only
This madhurya-lila-sakti that He sports at the same time with each gopa and gopi,...
radhaya saha rupena / nijena ramate svayam
iti madhurya-lilayah / saktir na tv isata hareh
but in His own original form He sports with Sri Radha. This is Sri Krsna’s madhurya-sakti, not His aisvarya-sakti.
jala-sekair mithas tatra / kriditva sva-ganais tatah
vasah srak-candanair divyair / bhusanair api bhusitau
“After entering within the lake, Radha-Krsna and Their sakhis begin Their play by splashing water at each other, and then bathing each other. After that, They are decorated with beautiful garments, fragrant garlands, candana and divine ornaments.
tatraiva sarasas tire / divya-manimaye grhe
asnatah phala-mulani / kalpitani mayaiva hi
Then, within a divine bower of jewels situated on the shore of that lake, I offer them a repast of fruits and herbal drinks that I have prepared myself.
haris tu prathamam bhuktva / kantaya parisevitah
dvitrabhih sevito gacchec / chayyam puspa-vinirmitam
Srimati Radhika personally serves Sri Krsna as He honors the festive foods
first. He then rests on a bed of flowers. At that time, two or three sakhis attend Him…
vyajanais tatra / pada-samvahanadibhih
sevyamano hasams tabhir / modate preyasim smaran
…by supplying Him with betel nuts (tambula), fanning Him, massaging His feet, and so on. As the sakhis serve Sri Krsna, He falls asleep smiling, absorbed in thoughts of His beloved Radhika.
sri-radhapi harau supte / sa-sakhi moditantara
kanta-dattam prita-mana / ucchistam bubhuje tatah
While Sri Krsna rests, Radhika and Her sakhis with great love and delight relish the remnants of food and drink left by Her lover.
kincid eva tato bhuktva / vrajet sayya-niketanam
drastum kanta-mukhambhojam / cakoriva nisa-karam
“After Sri Radhika has accepted a little of Krsna’s remnants, She goes to the bedroom and gazes upon the lotus face of Her Prana-vallabha, Sri Krsna, just like the cakori bird looks at the moon.
tambula-carvitam tasya / tatratyabhir niveditam
tambulany api casnati / vibhajanti priyalisu
The sakhis there offer Her the tambula chewed by Sri Syamasundara. She also chews the remnants, after dividing it among Her sakhis.
krsno’pi tasam susrusuh / svacchanda-bhasitam mithah
prapta-nidra ivabhati / vinidro’pi patavrtah
Sri Krsna is eager to hear the sweet, uninhibited talks between Sri Radhika and Her sakhis, so He has covered His whole body with cloth and pretends to be deeply asleep, although He is fully awake.
tas ca keli-ksanam krtva / mithah kanta-kathasrayah
vyaja-nidram harer jnatva / kutascid anumanatah
The sakhis think that Krsna is asleep and freely make witty remarks, laughing and cutting jokes with each other. Soon afterwards, however, they guess that He was only pretending to be asleep, and that He has cleverly heard everything that they said.
vyudasya rasanam dadbhih / pasyantyo’nyonya-mananam
lina iva lajjaya syuh / ksanam ucur na kincana
Feeling ashamed, they press their tongues between their teeth, and immersed in shyness, they look at each other’s faces in awe, unable to speak.
ksanad eva tato vastram / durikrtya tad-angatah
sadhu-nidram gato’siti / hasayanti hasanti tah
However, they very soon recover their natural state; throwing the cloth from Krsna’s body, they say, ‘What a sound sleep You are having!’ This amuses Krsna, and they all laugh together.
evam tau vividhair hasyai / ramamanau ganaih saha
anubhuyah ksanam nidram / sukhan ca muni-sattama
“O best of the munis, in this way Radha, Krsna and the sakhis perform a variety of playful pastimes which are full of witty jokes and laughter, and then They enjoy blissful sleep for sometime.
upavisyasane divye / sa-ganau vistrte muda
panikrtya mitho haram / cumbaslesa-paricchadan
Thereafter, in great delight, they all sit on a divine, capacious raised seat
Then, wagering necklaces, garments, kisses or embraces,…
aksair vikridatah premna / narmalapa-purahsaram
parajito’pi priyaya / jitam ity vadan mrsa
…with bhavas of prema they jestingly gamble with dice. Even though Krsna is
defeated, He falsely claims that He has won.
haradi-grahane tasyah / pravrttas tadyate taya
tathaivam taditah krsnah/ karotpala-saroruhaih
Thus He approaches to take away Radhika’s necklace, but She slaps Him. Being thus slapped by Her lotus hands,...
visanna-manaso bhutva / gantum ca kurute matim
jito’smi cet tvaya devi / grhyatam mat-panikrtam
Krsna becomes morose. Pretending that He is about to leave the place, He says ‘O Devi, I have been defeated by You. Here, take my wager.
cumbanadi maya dattam / ity uktva ca tathacaret
kautilyam tad-bhruvor drastum / srotum tad-bhartsanam vacah
These are the kisses and other things that I staked before.’
So saying, Sri Krsna awards Srimati Radhika Her kisses and
so on. Being eager to witness Sri Radha’s crooked eyebrows
and hear Her words of chastisement to Sri Syama…
tatah sari-sukanan ca / srutva bagaharam mithah
nirgacchatas tatah sthanad / gantu-kamau grham prati
…the suka and sari birds come and begin a dispute about the respective virtues of Radha and Krsna. After hearing that dispute between the suka and sari, Sri Sri Radha and Krsna depart for Their respective destinations.
krsnah kantam anujnapya / gavam abhimukham vrajet
sa tu surya-grham gacchet / sakhi-mandala-samvrta
Sri Krsna takes leave of His Prana-vallabha Srimati Radhika, and goes to rejoin the cows, while Srimati Radhika goes with Her sakhis to Surya Mandira to perform Surya-puja.
kiyad duram tato gatva / paravrtya harih punah
vipra-vesam samasthaya / yati surya-grham prati
Meanwhile, after Sri Krsna has gone a short distance, He disguises Himself as a brahmana priest, and also sets off for Surya Mandira.
suryan ca pujayet tatra / prarthitas tat-sakhi-janaih
tadaiva kalpitair vedaih / parihasa-visaradaih
Srimati Radhika’s sakhis think that He is a pujari who willhelp them to
conduct their worship, and they request Himto perform Surya-puja on their
behalf. Thereupon, Sri Krsnabegins to perform Surya-puja with funny,
concocted Vedic mantras.
tatas ta vyathitam kantam / parijnaya vicaksanah
ananda-sagare lina / na viduh svam na caparam
When the intelligent sakhis hear these made-up Vedic mantras, they immediately understand that this priest is none other than their lover Sri Krsna Himself, who is distressed in separation from Sri Radhika. Knowing this, drowning in the ocean of the bliss of prema, they forget their own identity and that of others.
viharair vividhair evam / sarddhayam advayam mune
nitva grham vrajeyus tah / sa ca krsno gavam vrajet
(O Muni), when They have spent two and a half praharas performing a variety of pastimes like this, Srimati Radhika and Her sakhis return to their respective homes, while Krsna proceeds to His cows.”
Vijaya: What are the aparahna-lila (afternoon pastimes)?
sangamya sva-sakhin krsno / grhitva gah samantatah
agacchati vrajam karsan / tatratyan murali-ravaih
Sri Vrnda-devi continues, “O Narada, Krsna rejoins His sakhas and returns to Vraja. By the sweet sound of His murali, He assembles all the cows from every direction and steals away the hearts of the vraja-vasis.
tato nandadayah sarve / srutva venu-ravam hareh
go-dhuli-patala-vyaptam / drstva vapi nabha-sthalam
krsnasyabhimukham yanti / tad-darsana-samutsukah
When Nanda and the other vraja-vasis hear the sweet sound of Sri Hari’s venu and see the sky being covered with the dust raised by the cows’ hooves, they become very eager to see Him and immediately proceed in that direction.
radhikapi samagatya / grhe snatva vibhusita
sampadya kanta-bhogartham / bhaksyani vividhani ca
sakhi-sangha-yuta yati / kantam drastum samutsukah
After returning to Her home, and being bathed, dressed and ornamented by Her sakhis, Srimati Radhika prepares various types of foods for Her Prana-vallabha Sri Krsna and anxiously leaves with Her sakhis to take His darsana.
-marge vraja-dvari / yatra sarva-vrajaukasah
krsno’pi tan samagamya / yathavad anupurvasah
When Krsna returns to the outskirts of Vraja on the way from go-carana, all of the vraja- vasis gather on both sides of the royal path. Sri Krsna greets everyone, and offers respect according to age, qualities and so forth.
darsanaih sparsanair vaca / smita-purvavalokanaih
gopa-vrddhan namaskaraih / kayikair vacikair api
Some He favors by looking on them, some by embracing, some by sweet words, and some by jubilant, sweet, smiling glances overflowing with prema.
sastanga-pataih pitarau / rohinim api narada
netranta-sucitenaiva / vinayena priyam tatha
He Narada! Sri Krsna offers respectful namaskara both by bodily gestures and by respectful words to all the elderly gopas. Falling down, He offers sastanga-dandavat to the feet of Maharaja Nanda, Yasoda Maiya, and Rohini Maiya, and gives special delight to His beloved gopis with His krpakataksa (merciful sweet sidelong glances).
evam tais ca yatha-yogyam / vrajaukobhih prapujitah
gavalayam tatha gas ca / sampravisya samantatah
In return, the various vraja-vasis offer Him blessings, exchange sweet words, worship Him and so on. He then carefully herds the cows into the go-sala.
pitrbhyam arthito yati / bhratra saha nijalayam
snatva bhuktva kincid atra / pitra matranumoditah
gavalayam punar yati / dogdhu-kamo gavam payah
Afterwards at the request of Their parents, Sri Krsna and Dauji go to Their rooms and bathe and take a little prasada. Then after requesting their parents’ blessings, the two divine brothers again proceed eagerly towards the go-sala to milk the cows.”
Vijaya: What are the sayam-lila (pastimes during dusk and early evening)?
tas ca dugdhva punah krsnah / dohayitva ca kascana
pitra sarddham grham yati / payo-bhara-satanugah
“Then Sri Krsna milks some of the cows Himself and engages others in milking the rest. When this is done, He returns to His house with His father, followed by hundreds of servants carrying pots of milk.
tatrapi matr-vrndais ca / tat-putrais ca balena ca
sambhukte vividhannani / carvya-cosyadikani ca
Arriving home, He sits beside Nanda Maharaja, His uncles, His cousins, Balarama and the sakhas while Yasoda, Rohini, and other elderly gopis serve Them, and He relishes varieties of food preparations that are chewed, sucked, licked and drunk.”
Vijaya: Please tell me about the pradosa-lila (pastimes of the first part of the night).
tan-matuh prarthanat purvam / radhayapi tadaiva hi
prasthapyante sakhi-dvara / pakvannani tadalayam
“In great excitement, Srimati Radhika cooks varieties of food preparations and sends them by Her sakhis to Krsna in Nanda-bhavan, even before Her mother-in-law orders Her to do so.
slaghayams ca haris tani / bhuktva pitradibhih saha
sabha-grham vrajet tais ca / justam bandhu-janadibhih
pakvannani grhitva tah / sakhyas tatra samagatah
bahuny eva punas tani / pradattani yasodaya
Along with His father and the sakhas, Sri Krsna repeatedly relishes and praises the varieties of preparations sent by Sri Radha, as well as many others given by Yasoda Maiya. Then Krsna goes with His father, friends and relatives to the assembly hall where singers and dancers entertain them with sweet songs and dances.
sakhya tatra taya dattam / krsnocchistam tatha rahah
sarvam tabhih samaniya / radhikayai nivedyate
Meanwhile, the sakhis take Krsna’s remnants and offer them to Radhika in a secret place. Srimati Radhika distributes them amongst the sakhis in order of seniority (and deeply absorbed in thoughts of Him She honors them with great delight).
sapi bhuktva sakhi-varga yuta tad-anupurvasah
sakhibhir mandita tisthet / abhisarttum samudyata
After enjoying those remnants, Her sakhis decorate Her very charmingly, and She is then ready to go on abhisara (meeting with Her priyatama Syama!).”
Vijaya: Prabhu, I am becoming very eager to hear about ratri-lila (the night pastimes).
prasthapyate maya kacid / ata eva tatah sakhi
tathabhisaritabhis ca / yamunayah samipatah
kalpa-vrkse nikunje’smin / divya-ratnamaye grhe
sita-krsna-nisayogya / vesayitva sakhi-yuta
Sri Vrnda-devi said, ”I send a certain sakhi from here to Srimati Radhika, who accompanied by Her sakhis then comes to a divine, bejeweled bower inside the nikunja. It is situated on the banks of Yamuna, densely covered by kalpavrksa trees. According to the messenger sakhi’s indication, Srimati Radhika dresses in clothes that suit the brightness of the moon. During the dark fortnight (krsna-paksa), She dresses in dark clothes, while in the bright fortnight (suklapaksa), She wears light or white clothes.
krsno’pi vividhas tatra / drstva kautuhalam tatah
katyayanya manojnani / srutvapi gitakany api
Meanwhile, Krsna sits in His father’s assembly hall, watching various types of wonderful shows and listening to katyayani-sangita songs that captivate the mind.
dhana-dhanyadibhis tams ca / prinayitva vidhanatah
janair aradhito matra / yati sayya-niketanam
After that, He suitably rewards and satisfies the performers with wealth or grains, accepts worship from Nanda Maharaja’s subjects, and proceeds with His mother towards His bedroom.
matari prasthitayan tu / bahir gatva tato grhat
sanketitam kantayatra / samagacched alaksitah
After Yasoda Maiya has put Krsna to sleep, she leaves Hisroom and
goes to rest in her own room. Thereupon, Krsna, who was only
pretending to be asleep, silently leaves His, taking care not to
be noticed by anyone,
militva tav ubhav atra / kridato vana-rajisu
viharair vividhai rasa-lasya-gita-purahsaraih
He goes to join His consort at the assigned meeting (sanketa)place.
There, They perform various pastimes headed bysinging and rasa dancing
together in the forest with Their sakhis.
sarddham yama-dvayam nitva / ratrav eva vidhanatah
visve susupatuh kunje / paksibhis tav alaksitau
“After spending almost two and a half praharas of the night and performing various other pastimes of the rasa-lila, (such as bathing in Yamuna), the two Moieties enter Their kunja unnoticed by the sleeping birds.
ekante kusumaih klipte / keli-talpe manohare
suptavatisthatam tatra / sevyamanau nijalibhih
In that solitary kunja, Radha and Krsna lie down on a sublime bed of flowers, just suitable for Their mind-captivating, amorous pastimes. Then they rest while Their most confidential sakhis render appropriate services.”
Vijaya, this is the most celebrated Sri Krsna’s asta-kaliya-lila, in which the ingredients of all types of rasa are present. The various types of rasas that I have discussed with you previously are all present in this lila. You should keep rendering your service at your assigned place, at the appointed time, in your appointed group, and with your specific relationship.
When Vijaya Kumara had heard all these descriptions from Sri Guru Gosvami’s lotus mouth, he became overwhelmed with bhava. Tears of prema rolled down his cheeks, and the hairs on his body stood on end. He spoke a few words in a faltering voice, and then fell unconscious at Sri Gopala Guru Gosvami’s lotus feet. Sometime later, when he regained consciousness, Sri Gopala Guru Gosvami embraced him with great affection, and stroked his head. Streams of tears also fell from Sri Guru Gosvami’s eyes.
Eventually, realizing that it was very late at night, Vijaya Kumara offered dandavat-pranama at Sri Guru Gosvami’s lotus feet, composed himself, and walked slowly to his place. Now rasa-katha began to appear in his heart day and night.
THUS ENDS THE THIRTY-EIGHTH CHAPTER OF JAIVA-DHARMA,
“SRNGARA-RASA: MUKHYA-SAMBHOGA & ASTA-KALIYA-LILA”