Glossary of Places


Agradvipa - a town about six miles south of Katoya (Katwa). It is situated on the west side of the Ganga, about 26 miles northwest of Mayapura, in the Barddhaman district. Sri Govinda, Sri Madhava, and Sri Vasudeva Ghosa lived here. The samadhi of Sri Govinda Ghosa is located in Agradvipa. Govinda Ghosa Thakura established the Deity of Sri Gopinatha on the east bank of the Ganga near Agradvipa.

Alakananda - one of the four great branches of the river Ganga (the others are the Bhagirathi, Mandakini, and Bhogavati). When the Alakananda meets the Bhagirathi in northern Uttara Pradesh, the river becomes known as the Ganga. It again divides in Bengal. In Bengal, one branch of the Ganga, which has now dried up, was called the Alakananda. This Alakananda formerly flowed south through Navadvipa-mandala. The bed of this river lies directly across the Ganga from the present town of Navadvipa, where it runs east for two miles and then turns south. From this point it runs between Godrumadvipa and Madhyadvipa.

Ambika-Kalna - a place about 30 km south of the present city of Navadvipa. This is where Sri Gauridasa Pandita, Sri Hrdaya Caitanya, Sri Paramananda Gupta, and Sri Suryadasa Pandita lived. It is situated on the west bank of the Ganga directly across from Santipura, where Sri Advaita Acarya lived. Sriman Mahaprabhu used to visit the house of Gauridasa Pandita in Kalna.

Amraghata - a village in Godrumadvipa also known as Amghata. It is on the east side of the Ganga, about midway between Svarupaganja and Devapalli. Once while Sriman Mahaprabhu was per-forming sankirtana with His associates, He arrived at this place.  After several hours of sankirtana, the devotees’ hunger and thirst was aroused. Sri Mahaprabhu planted a mango seed which immediately grew into a tree full of ripened mangoes, which had neither seeds nor skins. The mangoes were fragrant and their taste was sweeter than nectar. Sriman Mahaprabhu and Sri Nityananda Prabhu relished those fruits along with Their associates. This place is thus known as Amghata, the place of mangoes. 

Antardvipa - one of the nine islands of Navadvipa. This place embodies the devotional practice of atma-nivedanam, surrendering one’s very self to Sri Krsna. Antardvipa is situated in the antar (heart or middle) of the eight-petaled lotus of Navadvipa. At the center of Antardvipa is Sri Mayapura, and at the very core of Mayapura is Yogapitha, the place where Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu appeared.

     Lord Brahma felt despondent after disturbing Krsna’s pastimes in Vraja by stealing His cows and cowherd friends. He performed austerities in Antardvipa, knowing that Gauranga would descend there in Kali-yuga. Gauranga manifested before Brahma and gave him the benediction that Brahma would appear as the great bhakta, Haridasa Thakura. Taking birth in a Yavana family, he would not be disturbed by pride. Because Mahaprabhu revealed His internal (antar) feelings to Brahma at this place, the island is known as Antardvipa.


Baragachi - also known as Bahiragachi. It is situated two miles from

the Muragacha railway station, which is about 20 km north of Krsnanagara

on the east side of the Ganga. According to Caitanyabhagavata

(Antya 5.710-711), this place is famous for its connection

with Sri Nityananda Prabhu: visese sukrti ati badagachi-grama

nityananda-svarupera viharera sthana, badagachi gramera janeka

bhagyodaya taha kabhu kahite na pari samuccaya – “The village of Baragachi is especially virtuous because Nityananda Prabhu performed many pastimes there. It is simply impossible to describe the great fortune of this village.”

Bhagirathi - another name for the Ganga River. The river Ganga is a celestial river. Because this river was brought to the earth by the austerities and prayers of King Bhagiratha, she is also known as Bhagirathi. Initially, where the Ganga starts near Gangotri, she is known as the Bhagirathi. When the Bhagirathi meets the Alakananda, she becomes known as the Ganga. In West Bengal, the Ganga divides into the Padma River and the Bhagirathi. The Bhagirathi flows south through Navadvipa and on to the Bay of Bengal. Some distance south of Santipura, the Bhagirathi becomes known as the Hugli.

Bharata-varsa - one of nine tracts of land which form the divisions of Jambudvipa. It is named after King Bharata, the son of Rsabhadeva.  India is now known as Bharata, although in the ancient histories this appellation referred to the entire earth plant. 

Bhuh - (Bhu-loka) the planet earth.

Bhuh-mandala - the middle planetary system within the universe.

Bhuvah - (Bhuvar-loka) the second of seven divisions of planets:

Bhuh, Bhuvah, Svarga, Maharloka, Janaloka, Tapoloka, and Satyaloka. This planet is situated between the earth and the sun planet. It is attained by siddhas and munis.

Bilva-puskarini - also known as Bael-pukura. Sri Nilambara Cakravarti, the maternal grandfather of Sriman Mahaprabhu, lived at this place. It is situated near the northern border of Simantadvipa and forms part of the area known as Simuliya. 

Brahmaloka - the planet of Sri Brahma situated above Tapoloka at the upper limit of the universe. This planet is also known as Satyaloka.

Brahmana-puskarini - presently known as Bamana-pukura. According

to Sri Narahari dasa’s Parikrama-paddhati, the place now known

as Bamana-pukura was formerly called Brahmana-puskara: bamanapukure

punya-grama, brahmana-puskara e vidita purva nama. According

to a book named Citre Navadvipa, part of Bamana-pukura is included in Antardvipa and part in Simantadvipa. Bamanapukura is presently situated north of the Yogapitha and east of the Bhagirathi. From the description in the beginning of Chapter Twelve it appears that Brahmana-puskarini was situated just south of Bilva-puskarini, and together these two areas made up the district known as Simuliya. This must have been the case either at the time this book was written (1896) or at the time the story is set (c.1600). On the 1916 map of Sridhama Navadvipa, however, we see that there is a considerable distance between Bael-pukura and Bamana-pukura, and Bamana-pukura is south of the Bhagirathi. This type of shift of the land and modification of the names of places is a common feature of the Navadvipa area, largely due to the ever-changing course of the Ganga and its branches flowing through Navadvipa-mandala.


Campahatta - a place in the southwest part of Rtudvipa, also known as Campahati. It was formerly known as Campakahatta because there was a market (hatta) there that sold the flowers of the Campaka trees that grow profusely in this area. It is considered non-different from the Khadiravana forest of Vrndavana. The great poet Jayadeva Gosvami wrote the Gita-Govinda while residing in Campahatta.


Devapalli - a town three miles south-west of Krsna-nagara in Godrumadvipa where all the devas resided. In Satya-yuga, Lord Nrsimhadeva rested at Devapalli after killing Hiranyakasipu. This place is also thus known as Nrsimhapalli. There is an ancient Deity of Nrsimhadeva at this place, said to date back to Satyayuga.


Gadigacha - often equated with the entire region of Godruma-dvipa.  In Citre Navadvipa, Sriyukta Sarad-indu Narayana Raya has stated that Godruma is called Gadigacha in the Apabhramsa language. In Chapter Ten of this book, Gadigacha is referred to as a small area within Godruma-dvipa where the Vaisnavas of Pradyumna-kunja were living. On the 1916 map of Sridhama Navadvipa, Gadigacha is also portrayed as a small area of Godrumadvipa. 

Ganga - derived from the verbal root gam (to go) meaning Go!  Go! or ‘swift goer’. The holy river, Ganga, which flows southeast from the Himalayan Mountains to the Bay of Bengal; also known as the Ganges, Jahnavi, Bhagirathi, and Alakananda (see these entries in this Glossary).

Gauda-bhumi - the land of Gauda. According to the Sakti-sangama Tantra this corresponds to West Bengal, and includes some parts of modern day Bangladesh and Orissa (extending as far as Bhuvanesvara). In ancient times the residents of this tract of land were known as Gaudiyas. After the appearance of Sri Gauranga, the term Gaudiya was especially applied to the devotees of Gauranga, for almost everyone in this land had become His bhakta. 

Godruma - one of the nine islands of Navadvipa, situated east of the Bhagirathi and south of the Jalangi. It is bordered by Simantadvipa on the north side and by Madhyadvipa on the west.  This place is so named because Surabhi, a cow (go) of divine origin, worshiped Sri Gauranga here under the shade of a large banyan tree (druma). Each of the nine divisions of Navadvipa embodies one of the nine principal practices of bhakti, such as hearing about, chanting, and remembering the names, form, qualities and pastimes of Sri Krsna. Godrumadvipa personifies the practice of kirtanam, chanting.

Goloka Vrndavana - the highest realm of the spiritual world. This is the abode of Sri Krsna where He is manifest in His original and topmost feature as a cowherd boy, surrounded by His intimate and loving servitors, the gopas and gopis of Vraja. 

Gora-hrada - a pond near the Gadigacha area where Sri Gora (Go-Govinda, Ra-Radha) sported.

Govardhana - a sacred mountain situated in the middle of Vrajamandala about 26 km north-west of Mathura. This mountain is also known as Sri Giriraja (the king among mountains). He is identical with Sri Krsna and is also known as haridasa-varya, the best devotee of Sri Hari, for He facilitates Sri Krsna’s pastimes with His intimate friends and especially the most sacred pastimes with the gopis. Govardhana Hill lies in the shape of a peacock, with Radha-kunda and Syama-kunda as His eyes.


Indraloka - the planet of Indra in the celestial planets (svarga); a place of great opulence and heavenly pleasure. 

Indrapuri - the capital city of Indra in svarga, the celestial planets.


Jahnavi - a name for the Ganga, which reveals her connection with Jahnu Rsi. Jahnu Rsi was sitting by the Ganga chanting his gayatrimantra, when his acamana cup fell into the river and was swept away by the current. Out of anger, Jahnu Rsi opened his mouth and drank all the water in one gulp. King Bhagiratha, who had endeavored with great difficulty to bring the Ganga to earth to deliver his deceased relatives, was overwhelmed with anxiety and worshiped the sage for several days. Jahnu Rsi then released the Ganga from his body. Because of this incident, the Ganga is known as Jahnavi, the daughter of Jahnu.

Jahnudvipa - one of the nine islands of Navadvipa. This place embodies the devotional practice of vandanam, offering prayers and obeisances. It is non-different from Bhadravana in Vraja. Jahnu Rsi performed penances and meditation here and obtained darsana of Sri Gauranga (see also Jahnavi and Jahnu-nagara). 

Jahnu-nagara - the place where the sage, Jahnu Rsi, performed meditation and swallowed the Ganga River. This area is also known as Jahnudvipa and Jan-nagara.

Jambudvipa - the innermost of seven concentric islands which form the divisions of Bhu-mandala. Jambudvipa is itself divided into nine varsas, or tracts of land, the most famous of which is Bharatavarsa (India). According to some opinions, this roughly corresponds to Asia (Gaudiya-Vaisnava-Abhidhana).

Janaloka - a planet situated above Maharloka. It is obtained by the naisthika brahmacaris, those who accept a life-long vow of celibacy (unlike the upakurvana brahmacaris who enter the grhastha-asrama after completing their studies). At the time of the partial devastation of the universe, occurring at the end of Brahma’s day, the three worlds, Bhu, Bhuva, and Svarga, are consumed by flames. Although Maharloka, the planet immediately above Svarga, is not destroyed, the residents of Maharloka are afflicted by the heat which is raging below, and thus they go to Janaloka. The residents of Janaloka are not troubled by the flames which destroy the lower planets at the time of partial annihilation, yet they do experience unease when witnessing the devastation that takes place on the planets beneath them.


Kalna - see Ambika-Kalna.

Kancana-palli - also known as Kancra-para. This is the place where Sri Vasudeva datta Thakura and Kavi Karnapura (the son of Sivananda Sena) used to live. The parents of Sivananda Sena’s wife are also from this village. It is located on the east side of the Ganga, approximately parallel to Saptagrama. 

Kasi - ‘the city of light’; another name for Varanasi. This ancient city is located on the bank of the Ganga between Delhi (710 km) and Calcutta (680 km). Kasi is 125 km downstream from Allahabad.  It is a famous place of pilgrimage, especially for the devotees of Lord Siva. Kasi is celebrated as a place of learning and is a center of Sanskrit scholarship, and particularly of advaita-vedanta and mayavada philosophy.

Khola-bhanga-danga - the place where the Chand Kazi’s men broke a mrdanga and prohibited the performance of sankirtana. 

Koladvipa - one of the nine islands of Navadvipa. Much of Koladvipa is situated on the west bank of the Ganga, but a small portion is located on the east bank. This place embodies the devotional practice of pada-sevanam, serving the Lord’s lotus feet. It is also known as Kuliya Paharpura. Koladvipa is so named because Krsna’s boar incarnation, Sri Varahadeva (also known as Koladeva), manifested here to a brahmana who was worshiping Him. 

Kuliya - also known as Kuliya-grama and Kuliya Paharpura. It is situated in Koladvipa on the West bank of the Bhagirathi. The present day city of Navadvipa was formerly known as Kuliya-grama.  Sri Madhava dasa Cattopadhyaya (Chakauri Cattopadhyaya) lived in this village. He was the father of Srila Vamsivadanananda Thakura. This place is also called aparadha-bhanjana-pata, the place where offenses are destroyed. When Sriman Mahaprabhu came to Kuliya on the way from Puri to Vrndavana, He stayed at the house of Madhava dasa for seven days. During that time, He delivered two great offenders, Gopala Cakravarti and Devananda Pandita, as well as many others who came to see Him.


Madhyadvipa - one of the nine divisions of Navadvipa situated on the east side of the Bhagirathi. It is bordered by Koladvipa on the west side and by Godrumadvipa on the north and east sides. It was here that in Satya-yuga, the seven rsis (Bhrgu, Marici, Atri, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, and Vasistha) worshiped Gauranga with austerities and prayers on the order of their father, Brahma. Being pleased with their prayers, Sri Gauranga appeared before the rsis at mid-day (madhyahna). This place is thus known as Madhyadvipa.  Madhyadvipa embodies the devotional activity of smaranam, remembering sri-hari-nama, His form, qualities, and pastimes.  Maharloka - a planet situated above Svargaloka. This place is obtained by upakurvana brahmacaris, students of the Vedas who honor their teacher with a gift after completing their studies and before becoming grhasthas. The maharsis (great sages) who are progenitors of the universe reside on this planet. One obtains this planet by performing sacrifices, undergoing the yoga discipline and other similar practices which are far superior to the pious activities by which one becomes eligible for Svargaloka. When there is a partial devastation of the universe at the end of Brahma’s day, the three worlds, Bhu, Bhuva, and Svarga, are destroyed, but the higher planets beginning from Maharloka remain intact. 

Mayapura-dhama - the appearance place of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, situated in Antardvipa within the greater region of Navadvipa. Mayapura is located on the east bank of the Ganga.  Navadvipa forms an eight-petaled lotus. In the whorl of this lotus lies Antardvipa, at the very center of which is Mayapura. The actual appearance place of Sri Caitanya is situated within Mayapura and is known as Yogapitha, the seat of the Lord’s eternal transcendental pastimes.

Mithila - the ancient state ruled by King Janaka, the father of Sita. This state extended from Camparanya to the Gandaki river.  It is now part of Nepal and includes the present city of Janakapura, the birthplace of Sita. Janakapura is said to be the site of Sri Rama and Sita’s wedding.

Modadrumadvipa - one of the nine islands of Navadvipa.  Modadrumadvipa is situated on the west side of the Bhagirathi to the north of Jahnudvipa. This place is also known as Mamgachi and as Mahapata. Narayani (the mother of Sri Vrndavana dasa Thakura), Sri Vasudeva datta, and Sri Saranga Murari used to live here. Sri Vrndavana dasa Thakura, the writer of Caitanyabhagavata, took birth in Modadrumadvipa.

     In Satya-yuga, Sri Rama along with Sita and Laksmana came here during Their exile. Sri Ramacandra built a hut here underneath a large banyan tree and they lived happily for some time.  This place is therefore known as Modadrumadvipa, the place where Sri Rama lived with great delight under a banyan tree (moda means happiness or delight and druma means a tree). Sri Rama disclosed to Sita that in Kali-yuga He would appear in Navadvipa with a splendid golden complexion as the son of Saci Mata and that she would appear as His wife, Sri Visnupriya. This place embodies the devotional practice of dasyam, becoming a servant of the Lord.


Nadiya - a large district which encompasses the nine islands of Navadvipa.

Nandagrama - the village of Nanda Maharaja, the father of Sri Krsna. It is situated about sixty kilometers northwest of Mathura.  Nanda Maharaja and his community lived there before Krsna’s appearance. Prior to Krsna’s appearance, they moved to Gokula.  When Krsna was seven years old, the family moved back to this place and built their house on top of a large hill known as Nandisvara-parvata (Lord Sivaji, the Lord of Nandi, in the form of this hill). Krsna lived there from the age of seven until He was ten.

Nandana-kanana - Indra’s heavenly garden of paradise. 

Navadvipa - the village (or town) of Navadvipa. This is one village within the greater area of Navadvipa-mandala (see below). In this book both the village of Navadvipa and Navadvipa-mandala have been referred to simply as Navadvipa. Therefore the reader must apply discrimination according to context to understand when the author is referring to the village and when he is referring to the territory of Navadvipa. In Chapter Eleven the village of Navadvipa is called Pracina (Old) Navadvipa. There it is said that Pracina Navadvipa was situated across the Ganga from the village of Kuliya. Similarly in Chapter Seven it is said that Kuliyagrama was across the Ganga from Navadvipa. In Chapter Eleven it is said that Kuliya was situated on the western bank of the Bhagirathi in the Koladvipa district of Navadvipa-mandala. From these descriptions it is clear that Pracina Navadvipa was located on the east bank of the Ganga and therefore corresponds to the present-day site of Sri Mayapura. Kuliya-grama, situated on the west bank of the Ganga, corresponds to the present town of Navadvipa (see Kuliya for further confirmation of this point).  Therefore, wherever the village of Navadvipa is mentioned in this book, it refers to Pracina Navadvipa and not to the present town of Navadvipa.

Navadvipa-mandala - the sacred nine-island region about 130 kilometers north of Calcutta, where Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu’s early pastimes were manifest. Navadvipa consists of nine islands which resemble an eight-petalled lotus flower. Antardvipa is at the center of this lotus. Each of the nine divisions of Navadvipa represents one of the nine primary angas of bhakti. These divisions and their corresponding angas are as follows: (1) Antardvipa (atma-nivedanam, surrendering one’s very self), (2) Simantadvipa (sravanam, hearing), (3) Godrumadvipa (kirtanam, chanting), (4)

Madhyadvipa (smaranam, remembering Sri Krsna’s transcendental names, form, qualities, and pastimes), (5) Koladvipa (padasevanam, serving Sri Krsna’s feet), (6) Rtudvipa (arcanam, worshiping), (7)  Jahnudvipa (vandanam, offering prayers and obeisances), (8) Modadrumadvipa (dasyam, becoming a servant), and (9)  Rudradvipa (sakhyam, becoming a friend).

Nrsimhapalli - see Devapalli.


Pracina Navadvipa - the old village of Navadvipa, located on the east bank of the Ganga. This corresponds to the present site of Sri Mayapura (see Navadvipa for clarification). 

Purvasthali - this is a place located in the western part of Rudradvipa.


Radha-kunda - ‘the pond of Sri Radha’, situated 26 km northwest of Mathura. Considered to be the most sacred place of pilgrimage for all Gaudiya Vaisnava, Radha-kunda is the direct embodiment of Srimati Radhika. The most confidential pastimes of Radha and Krsna take place here.

Rtudvipa - one of the nine islands of Navadvipa. Rtudvipa is situated west of both the Ganga and Koladvipa, and south of Jahnudvipa. This place embodies the devotional practice of arcanam, worshiping Sri Krsna. The word rtu means season. The six seasons headed by spring manifest here in personified forms and, on the pretext of conversing among themselves, they worship Sri Gauranga in order to broadcast His transcendental pastimes.  Rtudvipa corresponds to Sri Radha-kunda in Vrndavana.  As Radha and Krsna go daily to Radha-kunda to enact Their midday pastimes, Sri Gauranga and His associates come to Rtudvipa daily to perform their noon pastimes.

Rudradvipa - one of the nine islands of Navadvipa. According to the 1916 map of Sridhama Navadvipa, Rudradvipa is divided in three by the Bhagirathi. This place embodies the devotional mood of sakhya, friendship with Sri Krsna. It is so named because the eleven Rudras (expansions of Lord Siva) reside here. Sri Visnusvami, the acarya of the Rudra sampradaya, visited this place, and both Lord Siva and Sri Gauranga appeared before him. Sri Siva gave Visnusvami the benediction that he (Visnusvami) would propagate a pure sampradaya, which would be named after himself. Mahaprabhu gave him the benediction that at the time of His own appearance as Sri Gauranga, Visnusvami would take birth as Sri Vallabhacarya.


Samudragarh - a place in the southwestern side of Rtudvipa. It is located on the southern-most border of Navadvipa-dhama.  Dvaraka-puri and Ganga-sagara are directly present here. The great king and bhakta of Krsna, Samudra Sena, had his capital here. When Bhima was touring east India on behalf of his brother, Yudhisthira, to collect tributes for the Rajasuya sacrifice, Samudra Sena opposed him, knowing that if he put Bhima into difficulty, Sri Krsna would come to his rescue. Krsna did appear, not to Bhima but before the King on the battlefield, first in His original form and then as Sri Gauranga. The ocean (samudra) also traveled to this place through the medium of the Ganga to have darsana of Sri Gauranga.

Santipura - the city where Advaita Acarya, Sri Harsa, and Gopalacarya lived. It is situated on the east side of the Ganga about 20 kilometers south of Krsna-nagara, which is about 12 kilometers due east of the present town of Navadvipa. Directly across the Ganga from Santipura is Kalna. After taking sannyasa, Sriman Mahaprabhu went to the house of Advaita Acarya in Santipura, after being misled by Nityananda Prabhu into thinking that He had arrived in Vrndavana.

Saptagrama - an ancient mercantile city about 50 km north of Calcutta on what is now the bed of the Sarasvati River.  Saptagrama is located west of the Ganga and south of Ambika-Kalna. As the name suggests, this city encompasses seven settlements: Saptagrama (or, in the opinion of some, Sabdakara), Vamsavati, Sivapura, Vasudevapura, Krsnapura (or, in the opinion of some, Candapura), Nityanandapura, and Sankha-nagara (or Baladaghati). The village of Triveni is also included in Saptagrama. Sri Uddharana Datta Thakura lived here. His father, Srikara Datta, was a wealthy gold merchant. Raghunatha dasa Gosvami lived in Krsnapura, Kalidasa lived in Sankha-nagara, and Balarama Acarya and Yadunandana Acarya lived in Candapura.

     Sarasvati a sacred river which flows in several different branches. It is said to mix with the Ganga and Yamuna at Prayaga. The Sarasvati formerly flowed through the area known as Saptagrama to the south of the present town of Navadvipa, but it has now dried up (Gaudiya-Vaisnava-Abhidhana).

Simantadvipa - one of the nine islands of Navadvipa. This place is also known as Simuliya. It is situated east of the Bhagirathi and north of the Jalangi, and it is at the northern border of Navadvipa.  This place embodies the devotional practice of sravanam, hearing the glories of Sri Krsna’s names, forms, qualities, and pastimes. In Satya-yuga, Parvati worshiped Sri Gauranga here on the inspiration of her husband, Lord Siva. When Gauranga appeared before her, she took the dust from His feet and placed it on the part in her hair (simanta). As a result, this place became known as Simantadvipa.

Simuliya - another name for Simantadvipa, or a section of Simantadvipa extending from Brahmana-puskarini to Bilvapuskarini.  This area is situated in the north of Navadvipa-mandala on the east side of the Bhagirathi.

Srivasa-angana - the courtyard of Srivasa Thakura situated in Mayapura just next to the birth place of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.  After Mahaprabhu received diksa from Srila Isvara Puri in Gaya, He returned to Navadvipa and began the sankirtana movement.  During this time He performed ecstatic kirtana every night with His intimate associates at Srivasa-angana. Srivasa-angana of navadvipa-lila is non-different from the rasa-sthali of vrndavana-lila. 

Sva - (Svarga-loka) the heavenly planets (see svarga-loka). 

Svarga-loka - the heavenly planets which are characterised by material opulence, enjoyment, and duration of life far exceeding those of the planet earth. Svarga is attained by strictly carrying out the pious activities recommended in the karma-kanda section of the Vedas.

Syama-kunda - ‘the pond of Sri Syamasundara’, situated just next to Sri Radha-kunda. This pond is the direct embodiment of Sri Krsna. This place is also known as Arista-kunda, because it was the pond Krsna made at the instigation of the gopis after He killed the Arista (bull) asura. The gopis accused Krsna of being impure because of having killed a bull. First Sri Krsna dug a small hole with His heal then He called all the sacred rivers throughout the universe, and at once they came together and entered to form this pond. Afterward, the personified deities of those rivers prayed to be accepted in Radha’s kunda also. Radha-kunda and Syama-kunda are considered to be the eyes of Govardhana, which lies in the shape of a peacock. They are together the site of the topmost pastimes of Radha and Krsna and are superlative among all holy places.


Tapoloka - a planet situated above Janaloka. Topmost sages like

the four Kumaras reside on this planet which is obtained by

naisthika- brahmacaris.


Vaikuntha - the spiritual world. The majestic realm of the spiritual world which is predominated by Lord Narayana or His various expansions. All the residents of Vaikuntha have eternal, spiritual bodies. They possess four arms and a darkish complexion like that of Bhagavan and are fully engaged in His service in pure devotional love. Their sense of intimacy with Sri Bhagavan is somewhat hampered, however, due to their aisvarya-bhava. Superior to this is Goloka Vrndavana, the topmost planet of Sri Krsna, which is characterised by madhurya and intimacy.  Vairagi-danga - a place situated in Sridhama Mayapura close to Khola-bhanga-danga. Because many renounced Vaisnavas were living in this place, it became known as Vairagi-danga.  Varanasi - see Kasi.

Vikramapura - a famous place in Bangladesh in the district of Dhaka. Living here were Canda Raya and Kedara Raya, who were among the twelve feudal princes governing Bengal during the Muslim regime. At first they were saktas (worshipers of Durga), but later they became disciples of Srila Narottama Thakura. 

Vraja-dhama - the one hundred sixty-eight square mile tract of land where Sri Krsna enacted His earthly pastimes. 

Vrndavana - ‘the forest of Vrnda’; the famous place where Sri Krsna enacted many of His enchanting lilas. Vrndavana is situ-ated approximately 12 kilometers northeast of Mathura, along the western bank of the Yamuna river. It is one of the twelve forests of Vraja and within it are twelve smaller forests: Atalavana (mountain forest), Korarivana (osprey forest), Viharavana (pleasure pastime forest), Gocaranavana (cowherding forest), Kaliyadamanavana (subduing Kaliya forest), Gopalavana (the cowherds forest), Nikunjavana (bower forest), Nidhuvana (treasure forest), Radhabaga (Radha’s garden), Jhulavana (swing pastime forest), Gahvaravana (secret forest), and Papadavana (forest of harsh mountains).


Yamuna - a sacred river flowing through Vraja-mandala. She is considered the holiest of rivers because Krsna performed many sublime lilas in her waters with the gopis and gopas. In this world she appears at Yamunottari in the Himalayas.Yamuna is described as an expansion of Visakha Devi: visakhorasi ya visnor yasyam visnur jalatmani nityam nimajjati pritya tam saurim yamunam stumah – “Lord Visnu daily immerses Himself and plays with great pleasure and affection in the water of Yamuna, the liquid form of Visakha Devi. Thus I offer prayers to Yamuna Devi, the daughter of Surya.”


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