Sreyas and Preyas



sreyas ca preyas ca manusyameta-

stau samparitya vivinakti dhirah

sreyo hi dhiro' bhipreyaso vrnite

preyo mando yogaksemad vrnite


            Every soul has the option of accepting either the path of the senses (preyas)

or the path of spiritual well-being (sreyas). The wise, after carefully weighing

these accept the path of spiritual well-being, whereas deluded souls prefer the

path of sense enjoyment. (Katha Upanisad. 1.2.2)


The Purpose of Human Life



labdhva su-durlabham idam bahu-sambhavante

manusyam artha-dam anityam apiha dhirah

turnam yateta na pated anu-mrtyu yavan

nihsreyasaya visayah khalu sarvatah syat


            After many births one achieves the human form, which, although tempo-

rary, affords one the opportunity to attain the highest perfection. Thus, a sober

person should immediately endeavor for the ultimate perfection of life and not

fall back into the cycle of repeated birth and death. After all, sense gratification

is available even in the most abominable species, whereas Krsna consciousness

is only possible for a human being. (Bhag. 11.9.29)


Three Different Paths Karma, Jnana, and Bhakti



yogas trayo maya prokta nrnam sreyo-vidhitsaya

jnanam karma ca bhaktis ca nopayo 'nyo 'sti kutracit


            [The Lord said] My dear Uddhava, because I desire human beings to achieve

perfection, I have presented three paths of advancement the path of knowl-

edge (jnana), the path of pious work (karma), and the path of devotion (bhakti).

There are no other paths besides these three. (Bhag. 11.20.6)


Who Qualifies for Karma, Jnana, or Bhakti



nirvinnanam jnana-yogo nyasinam iha karmasu

tesv anirvinna-cittanam karma-yogas tu kaminam


            Out of these three paths, those who are disgusted with fruitive work are

qualified for jnana-yoga. Those who are still charmed by fruitive work are quali-

fied for karma-yoga. (Bhag. 11.20.7)



yadrcchaya mat-kathadau jata-sraddhas tu yah puman

na nirvinno nati-sakto bhakti-yogo 'sya siddhi-dah


            One who, by good fortune, has firm faith in hearing Hari-katha and is not

attracted or repelled by material things, is qualified for perfection through bhakti-

yoga. (Bhag. 11.20.8)



tavat karmani kurvita na nirvidyeta yavata

mat-katha-sravanadau va sraddha yavan na jayate


            As long as one is not detached from fruitive work and material enjoyment,

and as long as one has no faith in devotion to Krsna, beginning with hearing and

chanting His glories, one should follow the religious principles on the path of

karma as given in the Vedas. (Bhag. 11.20.9)


To be Fixed in That for Which one is Qualified is a Good Quality



sve sve 'dhikare ya nistha sa gunah parikirtitah

viparyayas tu dosah syad ubhayor esa niscayah


            Being fixed in the position for which one is qualified is virtuous. The

opposite accepting a position for which one is unqualified is irresponsible and

is considered impious. This is the definite conclusion. (Bhag. 11.21.2)



sreyan sva-dharmo vigunah para-dharmat sv-anusthitat

sva-dharme nidhanam sreyah para-dharmo bhayavahah


            It is better to do one's duty poorly than to do another's duty perfectly. It is

better to die doing one's duties than to leave them and follow another's dharma,

for to follow another's dharma is dangerous. (Bhagavad-gita 3.35)


Even Sages and Demigods are

Bewildered Trying to Understand the Vedas



sri-avirhotra uvaca

karmakarma vikarmeti veda-vado na laukikah

vedasya cesvaratmatvat tatra muhyanti surayah


            The classifications of karma (duties enjoined by the Vedas) akarma (acts

prohibited by the Vedas) and vikarma (those acts neither sanctioned nor for-

bidden) are defined in the Vedas, which are of supernatural origin. Therefore,

because the Vedas emanate from God, even though sages and demigods are

bewildered in trying to understand them, they are conclusive. (Bhag. 11.3.43)



paroksa-vado vedo 'yam balanam anusasanam

karma-moksaya karmani vidhatte hy agadam yatha


            The Vedas often imply something deeper and different from the superfi-

cial interpretation of its words. Thus they sometimes instruct us indirectly about

the Truth. As a child is tempted to take bitter medicine by something sweet the

Vedas sometimes glorify the path of karma, but the true goal of the Vedas is

liberation from karma. (Bhag. 11.3.44)



nacared yas tu vedoktam svayam ajno 'jitendriyah

vikarmana hy adharmena mrtyor mrtyum upaiti sah


            [One should not prematurely give up Vedic injunctions, thinking them ex-

ternal to the process of liberation]. Rather, if an ignorant person who cannot

control his senses, ignores the Vedic injunctions, he will engage in irreligious

and impious activities, and thus will suffer repeated birth and death.

(Bhag. 11.3.45)



vedoktam eva kurvano nihsango 'rpitam isvare

naiskarmyam labhate siddhim rocanartha phala-srutih


            One who performs actions sanctioned by the Vedas, without attachment,

and who dedicates his work to the Supreme Lord is freed from the reactions of

karma. The promise of the fruits of karma mentioned in the Vedas is only

meant to encourage the foolish to engage in karma-yoga. [For all the above-

reasons, the Vedas sometimes encourage the path of karma, to gradually bring

the foolish souls to the platform of freedom from karma and full engagement in

bhakti ]. (Bhag. 11.3.46)


The Vaisnava Guru Never Encourages Karma



svayam nihsreyasam vidvan na vakty ajnaya karma hi

na rati rogino 'pathyam vanchato 'pi bhisaktamah


            A pure devotee, who is fully accomplished in the science of devotional

service, will never instruct a foolish person to engage in fruitive activities for

material enjoyment, not to speak of helping him in such activities. Such a devo-

tee is like an experienced doctor who never encourages a patient to eat food

injurious to his health, even if the patient desires it. (Bhag. 6.9.50)


Karma-yoga Does not Give Freedom

From the Fear of Birth and Death



istveha devata yajnaih svar-lokam yati yajnikah

bhunjita deva-vat tatra bhogan divyan nijarjitan



            [The Lord said] If one performs sacrifice, or karma-yoga according to

varnasrama-dharma, his fruits will be temporary. By satisfying the gods through

sacrifice, he gets good karma and goes to the heavenly planets where he enjoys

as if he were a god. He thus enjoys the results of his good karma for a brief time

in the heavenly planets. (Bhag. 11.10.23)



tavat sa modate svarge yavat punyam samapyate

ksina-punyah pataty arvag anicchan kala-calitah


            As long as the piety accumulated from good karma is plentiful, he enjoys

opulent pleasures in the heavenly planets. When the accumulated piety of his

good karma is exhausted his time of enjoyment is finished, and he again falls

down from heaven. (Bhag. 11.10.26)



te tam bhuktva svarga-lokam visalam

ksine punye martya-lokam visanti

evam trayi-dharmam anuprapanna

gatagatam kama-kama labhante


            When they have thus enjoyed heavenly sense pleasure, they again return

to this mortal world. Thus, those who are filled with desires and follow the

Vedas to attain material enjoyment achieve only flickering pleasure. They are

then cast down to suffer repeated birth and death. (Bhagavad-gita 9.21)


Bhagavatam Derides Karma and Jnana



naiskarmyam apy acyuta-bhava-varjitam

na sobhate jnanam alam niranjanam

kutah punah sasvad abhadram isvare

na carpitam karma yad apy akaranam


            The freedom from karma or liberation attained through impersonal knowl-

edge is ugly because it is devoid of a conception of the personal absolute. What

then is the use of karmic activities? They are painful and inauspicious from

beginning to end, and their results are temporary. Of what use is any work if it

is not for Krsna's pleasure? Merely retiring from work cannot bring about

fulfillment. Even liberation, which is free from karma, cannot be considered

perfection for it lacks a personal conception of reality. How then, can one

expect fulfillment in a life of laborious work which is not done for the satisfac-

tion of Krsna? (Bhag. 1.5.12)


Materialistic Karmic Activities arc Condemned



neha yat karma dharmaya na viragaya kalpate

na tirtha-pada-sevayai jivann api mrto hi sah


            Anyone whose work (karma) does not elevate him to religious life

(dharma), whose religious life does not lead to renunciation (vairagya) and whose

renunciation does not lead to devotional service to the Supreme Lord is counted

among the living dead. (Bhag. 3.23.56)



dharmah svanusthitah pumsam visvaksena-kathasu yah

notpadayed yadi ratim srama eva hi kevalam


            Any religious practices and occupational duties that do not promote at-

traction for the message of the Personality of Godhead are certainly a useless

waste of time. (Bhag. 1.2.8)



dharmasya hy apavargyasya nartho 'rthayopakalpate

narthasya dharmaikantasya kamo labhaya hi smrtah


            All dharmas are certainly meant for ultimate liberation. They should never

be performed for material gain. Further, according to sages, one engaged in the

ultimate occupational duty should never use material gain to cultivate sense

gratification. (Bhag. 1.2.9)



kamasya nendriya-pritir labho jiveta yavata

jivasya tattva-jijnasa nartho yas ceha karmabhih


            Life's desires should never be aimed at sensual enjoyment. One should

not wish for anything more than what is needed for self-preservation, because

the real purpose of human life is to inquire after the Absolute Truth. Nothing

else should be the goal of one's works. (Bhag. 1.2.10)


The Path of Karma is Condemned in the Vedas



plava hyete adrdha yajnarupa

astadasoktamavaram yesu karma

etacchreyo ye' bhinandanti mudha

jara-mrtyum te punarevapi yanti


            Even the best kinds of karmic sacrifice carefully performed with eighteen

priests are unreliable boats for crossing the ocean of material existence. Those

deluded souls who take to materialistic forms of sacrifice, thinking that they

lead to the highest spiritual gain, are fools who suffer again and again the miser-

ies of birth, death, old age, and disease. (Mundaka Upanisad 1.2.7)



avidyayamantare vartamanah

svayam dhirah panditam manyamanah

janghanyamanah pariyanti mudha

andhenaiva niyamana yathandhah


            Thus deluded by ignorance, but thinking themselves to be wise, sober, and

learned, such fools, even while suffering the miseries of sense enjoyment, lead

other fools into darkness, just as blind men lead other blind men into a ditch.

(Mundaka Upanisad 1.2.8)



avidyayam bahudha vartamana

vayam krtartha ity-abhimanyanti balah

yat karmino na pravedayanti ragat

tenaturah ksina-lokas-cyavante


            Deep in the darkness of ignorance, these fools think, "We have reached

the goal". Being attached to karmic religions they fail to understand the truth.

After their piety is exhausted they fall down to repeated birth and death.

(Mundaka Upanisad 1.2.9)


Without Worshiping Visnu, Worship of Demigods is Improper



ye 'py anya-devata-bhakta yajante sraddhayanvitah

te 'pi mam eva kaunteya yajanty avidhi-purvakam


            Those who faithfully dedicate themselves to the worship of demigods

worship Me indirectly, but their worship is done with improper understanding.

(Bhagavad-gita 9.23)


Impersonalism is Condemned in the Upanisads



andham tamah pravisanti ye 'vidyam upasate

tato bhuya iva te tamo ya u vidyayam ratah


            Those who engage in the culture of ignorance [and so perform karma-

kanda worship to attain their desired object] shall enter into dark regions of

ignorance. Worse still are those engaged in the culture of so-called knowledge.

They enter into a realm of even greater darkness. (Isopanisad 9)



kleso 'dhikataras tesam avyaktasakta-cetasam

avyakta hi gatir duhkham dehavadbhir avapyate


            For those whose minds are attached to the unmanifest, impersonal feature

of the Absolute, advancement is very troublesome. Progress in that discipline

is always difficult for those who are embodied. (Bhagavad-gita 12.5)


The Scriptures Condemn the Ascending Path of Knowledge



jnane prayasam udapasya namanta eva

jivanti san-mukharitam bhavadiya-vartam

sthane sthitah sruti-gatam tanu-van-manobhir

ye prayaso 'jita jito 'py asi tais tri-lokyam


            [Lord Brahma said] My dear Lord, those devotees who have thrown away

the impersonal conception of the Absolute Truth and have therefore abandoned

discussing empirical philosophical truths should hear from self-realized devo-

tees about Your holy name, form, pastimes, and qualities. They should com-

pletely follow the principles of devotional service. Surrendering fully with

body, mind, and words they can live in any position. Indeed, O Lord,

although You are unconquerable, You are conquered by such persons.

(Bhag. 10.14.3)



sreyah-srtim bhaktim udasya te vibho

klisyanti ye kevala-bodha-labdhaye

tesam asau klesala eva sisyate

nanyad yatha sthula-tusavaghatinam


            My dear Lord, devotional service unto You is the only auspicious path.

Those who reject the path of bhakti and try to reach the infinite with their finite

brains will never succeed. O Lord, those who want to have a clear conception

of You through their intellect find their attempts useless. Their endeavors end

only in trouble and frustration, like the frustration of those who try to beat rice

from empty husks. (Bhag. 10.14.4)


The Followers of the Ascending and

Descending Path and Their Destinations



ye 'nye 'ravindaksa vimukta-maninas

tvayy asta-bhavad avisuddha-buddhayah

aruhya krcchrena param padam tatah

patantya adho 'nadrta-yusmad-anghrayah


            Someone may say that aside from Vaisnavas, who always seek shelter at

the Lord's lotus feet, there are those who are not Vaisnavas but have accepted

different process for attaining salvation. What happens to them? In answer to

this question, Lord Brahma says: O lotus-eyed Lord, although non-devotees

who accept severe austerities and penance's to achieve the highest position may

think themselves liberated, their intelligence is impure. Although they may rise

to the level of impersonal Brahman realization, they fall down from their posi-

tion of imagined superiority because they neglect to worship Your lotus feet.

(Bhag. 10.2.32)



tatha na te madhava tavakah kvacid

bhrasyanti margat tvayi baddha-sauhrdah

tvayabhigupta vicaranti nirbhaya

vinayakanikapa-murdhasu prabho


            O Madhava, Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord of the goddess of

fortune, if devotees completely in love with You sometimes fall from the path

of devotion, they do not fall down like non-devotees, for You still protect them.

Thus they fearlessly traverse the heads of their opponents and continue to

progress in devotional service. (Bhag. 10.2.33)



jivan-mukta api punar-bandhanam yanti karmabhih

yady-acintya-maha-saktau bhagavaty-aparadhinah


            Those souls who have attained liberation while living can again become

bound if they commit an offense to the inconceivably powerful Supreme Per-

sonality of Godhead. (Vasana-bhasyodhrta Sri Bhagavata-parisista-vacana)



jivan-muktah prapadyante kvacit samsara-vasanam

yogino na vilipyante karmabhir-bhagavat-parah


            Those who have attained liberation while living sometimes develop

material attachment, but those who are fixed in bhakti-yoga, who have dedicated

themselves to Krsna, will never again have to suffer repeated birth and death.

(Vasana-bhasyodhrta Sri Bhagavata-parisista-vacana)



nanu-vrajati yo mohadavrajantam jagadisvaram

jnanagnidagdha-karmapi sa bhaved brahmaraksasah


            Out of foolishness if one does not follow the Lord of the universe when he

goes out on a chariot then such a person will become Brahma-raksasa even if he

is a liberated person. (Ratha-yatra-prasange Sri Visnu-bhakti-candrodayoddhrta



Material Education, Austerity, Work, Knowledge,

or Eightfold Yoga, Cannot Enable one to see God



adyapi vacas-patayas tapo-vidya-samadhibhih

pasyanto 'pi na pasyanti pasyantam paramesvaram


            [The most powerful Lord Brahma, the father of all progenitors, Lord Siva;

Manu, Daksa and other rulers of humankind, the four saintly Brahmacaris

headed by Sanaka and Sanatana, the great sages Marici, Atri, Angira, Pulastya,

Pulaha, Kratu, Bhrgu, and Vasistha, and my humble self (Narada) are all stal-

wart brahmans.] All of us can speak authoritatively on Vedic literature. We are

very powerful because of austerities, meditation and education. Nonetheless,

even after searching for the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who sees every-

thing, we cannot see Him or understand Him. (Bhag. 4.29.44)


The Instruction of the Vedas About the

Ascending Path of Impersonal Knowledge



nayam-atma-pravacanena labhyo na medhaya na bahuna srutena

yam evaisa vrnute tena labhyas tasyaisa atma vivrnute tanum svam


            The Supreme Self can never be known by argument, reasoning, intelli-

gence, or scholarship. By His own sweet will, however, the Lord may choose to

reveal Himself to someone in His personal divine form. Only such a person can

see the Lord. (Mundaka Upanisad 3.2.3)



athapi te deva padambuja-dvaya-prasada-lesanugrhita eva hi

janati tattvam bhagavan-mahimno na canya eko 'pi ciram vicinvan


            [Lord Brahma said] My Lord, if one is favored by even a slight trace of the

mercy of Your lotus feet, he can understand the greatness of Your personality.

But those who speculate are unable to know you, even though they study the

Vedas for many years. (Bhag. 10.14.29)



isvarera krpa-lesa haya ta' yahare

sei ta' isvara-tattva janibare pare


            If one receives but a tiny bit of the Lord's favor by dint of devotional ser-

vice, he can understand the nature of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

(Cc. Madhya 6.83)


Bhakti is Superior to Karma and Jnana



sva-sukha-nibhrta-cetas tad-vyudastanya-bhavo

'py ajita-rucira-lilakrsta-saras tadiyam

vyatanuta krpaya yas tattva-dipam puranam

tam akhila-vrjina-ghnam vyasa-sunum nato 'smi


            Let me offer my respectful obeisance's unto my spiritual master, the son of

Vyasadeva, Sukadeva Gosvami. It is he who defeats all inauspicious things

within this universe. Although in the beginning he was absorbed in the happi-

ness of Brahman realization and was living in a secluded place, giving up all

other types of consciousness, he became attracted by the most melodious pas-

times of Lord Krsna. He therefore mercifully spoke the supreme Purana, Srimad

Bhagavatam, which is the bright light of the Absolute Truth and which describes

the activities of Lord Krsna. (Bhag. 12.12.69)


The Eightfold Yoga System Does not Lead to the Highest Goal



yamadibhir yoga-pathaih kama-lobha-hato muhuh

mukunda-sevaya yadvat tathatmaddha na samyati


            By yoga practice one may be able to control the senses and become

relatively free from lust and greed, but this will never satisfy the soul. Only devo-

tional service to Krsna gives complete satisfaction to the soul. (Bhag. 1.6.35)


Mind Control Through Pranayama is Impossible



yunjananam abhaktanam pranayamadibhir manah

aksina-vasanam rajan drsyate punar utthitam


            Nondevotees who attempt to control the mind through pranayama may

succeed for a time, but ultimately their minds are filled with subtle desires, there-

fore, they soon become attached once again to the sense objects. (Bhag. 10.51.60)



prayasah pundarikaksa yunjanto yogino manah

visidanty asamadhanan mano-nigraha-karsitah


            O lotus-eyed Lord, those yogis who try to control their minds are frus-

trated in their attempts to attain samadhi, and soon tire of their efforts at mind

control. (Bhag. 11.29.2)


Yoga and Pranayama are a Waste of Time



antarayan vadanty eta yunjato yogam uttamam

maya sampadyamanasya kala-ksapana-hetavah


            The wise have concluded that yoga and its mystic perfection's are impedi-

ments on the path of the Absolute Truth. They are a waste of time for those

who wish to practice the best yoga, devotional service, and thus attain the

highest perfection [love of Godhead]. (Bhag. 11.15.33)


Who is a Real Yogi and Sannyasi?



anasritah karma-phalam karyam karma karoti yah

sa sannyasi ca yogi ca na niragnir na cakriyah


            One who is unattached to the fruits of his work yet does his duty is a true

sannyasi and a yogi, not he who lights no fire of sacrifice or performs no work.

(Bhagavad-gita 6.1)



niskama haiyakare ye krsna-bhajana

tahare se bali "yogi" sannyasa-laksana

visnu-kriya na karile paranna khaile

kicchu nahe, saksatei ei vede bale


            One who worships Krsna without material desires is a real yogi and has

symptoms of sannyasi. Those who do not work for Visnu but eat from others

are parasites. That is the version of the Vedas. (C.bhag. Antya 3.41-42)



tapasvibhyo 'dhiko yogi jnanibhyo 'pi mato 'dhikah

karmibhyas cadhiko yogi tasmad yogi bhavarjuna


            A yogi is greater than a ascetic, a jnani, or a karmi. Therefore, O Arjuna,

always be a yogi. (Bhagavad-gita 6.46)



yoginam api sarvesam mad-gatenantar-atmana

sraddhavan bhajate yo mam sa me yuktatamo matah


            Of all yogis, who always abides in Me with great faith, always thinking of

Me and worshiping Me in transcendental loving service, is most intimately

united with Me in yoga. He is the highest of all. (Bhagavad-gita 6.47)


Without Bhakti There is no Means to Attain the Supreme



na sadhayati mam yogo na sankhyam dharma uddhava

na svadhyayas tapas tyago yatha bhaktir mamorjita


            I am not controlled by those who practice mystic yoga, Sankhya philoso-

phy, mundane piety and religion, study of the Vedas, penances and renuncia-

tion. O Uddhava, I am controlled by bhakti. Those who have developed unal-

loyed devotion for Me control Me by their love. (Bhag. 11.14.20)


Pure Devotion is the Only Means to Attain Krsna



'bapera dhana ache' jnane dhana nahi paya

tabe sarvajna kahe tare praptira upaya

'ei sthane ache dhana' yadi daksine khudibe

'bhimarula-baruli' uthibe, dhana na paibe

'pascime' khudibe, taha 'yaksa' eka haya

se vighna karibe, dhane hata na padaya

'uttare' khudile ache krsna 'ajagare'

dhana nahi pabe, khudite gilibe sabare

purva-dike tate mati alpa khudite

dhanera jhari padibeka tomara hatete

aiche sastra kahe, karma, jnana, yoga tyaji'

'bhaktye' krsna vasa haya, bhaktye tanre bhaji

ataeva 'bhakti' krsna-praptyera upaya

'abhidheya' bali' tare sarva-sastre gaya

dhana paile yaiche sukha-bhoga phala paya

sukha-bhoga haite duhkha apani palaya

taiche bhakti-phale krsne prema upajaya

preme krsnasvada haile bhava nasa paya

daridrya-nasa, bhava-ksaya, premera 'phala' naya

prema-sukha-bhoga mukhya prayojana haya


            Although being assured of his father's treasure, the poor man could not

acquire this treasure by such knowledge alone. The astrologer had to tell him,

therefore, the means whereby he could actually find the treasure. The astrolo-

ger said, "The treasure is in this place, but if you dig on the southern side, the

wasps and drones will rise, and you will not get your treasure. If you dig on the

western side, a ghost will create such a disturbance that your hands will not

even touch the treasure. If you dig on the northern side, a big black snake will

devour you. If, however, you dig up a small quantity of dirt on the eastern side,

you will immediately touch the pot of treasure. Revealed scriptures conclude

that one should give up fruitive activity, speculative knowledge, and the mystic

yoga system. Instead one should take to devotional service, by which Krsna

can be fully satisfied. The conclusion is that devotional service is the only means

to approach the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This system is therefore

called abhidheya. This is the verdict of all revealed scriptures. When one is

actually rich he naturally enjoys all kinds of happiness. When one is actually

a happy mood, all distressful conditions go away by themselves. No extraneous

endeavor is needed. Similarly, as a result of bhakti, one's dormant love for

Krsna awakens. Then one can taste the association of Lord Krsna. And mater-

ial existence, the repetition of birth and death, comes to an end. The goal of

love of Godhead is not to become materially rich or free from material bond-

age. The real goal is to be situated in devotional service to the Lord and to

enjoy transcendental bliss. (Cc. Madhya 20.131-136, 139-142)


The Goal of Bhakti and the Goal of Karma

and Jnana are not the Same



tesam satata-yuktanam bhajatam priti-purvakam

dadami buddhi-yogam tam yena mam upayanti te


            To those who are constantly devoted, serving Me with love, I give the

understanding by which they can come to Me. (Bhagavad-gita 10.10)



yogasya tapasas caiva nyasasya gatayo 'malah

mahar janas tapah satyam bhakti-yogasya mad-gatih


            Those who practice mystic yoga, who perform great austerities and accept

sannyasa, may attain the sinless realms of Maharloka, Janaloka, Tapaloka, and

Satyaloka, but those who practice bhakti-yoga, devotional service unto Me, at-

tain My abode. (Bhag. 11.24.14)



yanti deva-vrata devan pitrn yanti pitr-vratah

bhutani yanti bhutejya yanti mad-yajino 'pi mam


            Those who worship the demigods go to the planets of the demigods; those

who worship the ancestors go to the ancestors; those who worship ghosts and

spirits take birth among such beings, and those who worship Me will live with

Me. (Bhagavad-gita 9.25)



'mukti, bhukti vanche yei, kahan duohara gati?'

'sthavara-deha, deva-deha yaiche avasthiti'


            "And what is the destination of those who desire liberation and those

who desire sense gratification?" Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu asked. Ramananda Raya

replied, "Those who attempt to merge into the existence of the Supreme Lord

will have to accept a body like that of a tree. And those who are overly inclined

toward sense gratification will attain the bodies of demigods.'' (Cc. Madhya 8.257)


The Character of Bhakti



mac-citta mad-gata-prana bodhayantah parasparam

kathayantas ca mam nityam tusyanti ca ramanti ca


            The thoughts of My pure devotees dwell in Me, their lives are fully de-

voted to My service, and they derive great satisfaction and bliss from always

enlightening one another and conversing, about Me.

(Bhagavad-gita l0.9)


Thus ends the Twelfth Jewel of the Gaudiya Kanthahara, entitled Abhidheya-tattva.

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