Srimad-Bhagavatam Describes the Four Kinds of Evidence.


Appendix 1

srutih pratyaksamaitihyam anumanam catusthayam

pramanesvana-vasthanad vikalpat sa virajyate


            There are four kinds of evidence by which reality may be known:

revelation, perception, history and hearsay and inference. (Bhag. 11.19.17)


Manu-samhita Describes Three Kinds of Evidence.


Appendix 2

pratyaksas-canumananca sastranca vividhagamam

trayam suviditam karyam dharma-suddhim-abhisata


            If one wants to understand what is reality, one must consider the

three kinds of evidence: Vedic evidence, perception, and inference. (Manu 12.105)


The Ancient Vaisnava Madhva Muni Explains the Three Kinds of Evidence.


Appendix 3

pratyakse 'ntarbhaved yasmad-atithyam tena desikah

pramanam trividham prakhyat tatra mukhya srutir-bhavet


            Since hearsay is included in perception, Madhvacarya has said that

the means of proper knowledge are three, among which sruti, or revelation,

is the highest. (Prameya-ratnavali 9.2)


Divine Sound is the Best Evidence for Understanding Reality


Appendix 4

yadyapi pratyaksanumana-sabdaryopamanarthapattyabhava-

sambhavaitihya-cesthakhyani dasa pramanani viditani, tathapi bhrama-

pramada-vipralipsa-karanapatava-dosa-rahitavacanatmakah sabda eva

mulam pramanam


            If one carefully examines the ten kinds of evidence, namely

pratyaksa, anumana, arya, upamana, arthapatti, abhava, sambhava,

aithihya, and centha, one will find that all of them are contaminated with

the four defects of material life: cheating, imperfect senses, illusion, and

mistakes. Therefore of all of these, revelation, sruti, is considered to be

superior for it is above the four defects. Sruti is, therefore, the root of all

evidence. (Tattva-Sandarbha, Sarva-samvadini)


Appendix 5

pramanera madhye sruti-pramana pradhana

sruti ye mukhyartha kahe, sei se pramana

jivera asthi-vistha dui sankha-gomaya

sruti-vakye sei dui mahapavitra haya

svatah-pramana veda satya yei kaya

"laksana" karile svatah-pramanya-hani haya


            [Caitanya Mahaprabhu said] Although there is other evidence, the

evidence given in the Vedic version must be taken as foremost. Vedic ver-

sions understood directly are first-class evidence. Conchshells and cow dung

are nothing but the bones and the stool of certain living entities, but accord-

ing to the Vedic version they are both considered very pure.

The Vedic statements are self-evident. Whatever they state must be ac-

cepted. If we interpret according to our own imagination, the authority of

the Vedas is immediately lost. (Cc. Madhya 6.135-137)

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