Jaiva Dharma - The Nature Of The Soul (Part II)

by Sriman Prema Prayojana Dasa

World Tour 2002 - 30 May 2002

San Jose, California

First of all, I offer my dandavat puspanjali - my heart like a handful of flowers - thousands of times at the lotus feet of my holy master, Paramaradhyatama Gurupadapadma, Sri Rupanugacarya Varya, Om Visnupada astottara sata, Sri Srimad Bhaktivedanta Narayana Gosvami Maharaja. Although I am unqualified, on his divine order, I will try my best to convey the conceptions of the illustrious Vaisnava acaryas who are strictly following in the line of Srila Rupa Gosvamipada.

Secondly, I offer my dandavat pranam thousands of times at the lotus feet of my Rupanuga Guru Varga; and thirdly, I offer my pranam to all the assembled Vaisnavas, especially unto my pujaniya gurujana, my worshipful superiors, guardians and well-wishers, the disciples of Srila Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada; unto my Godbrothers and Godsisters; and all the respectable guests who have assembled to hear the nectar of hari katha.

Yesterday we began to discuss the conception of jiva-tattva and dharma in an attempt to convey Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura's presentation of these topics in his great masterpiece, Jaiva Dharma. For those who were not here, I will quickly review a few points that we touched upon last night. Every field of knowledge has its own terminology that helps us understand the subject precisely. In understanding the soul, it is helpful for us to become acquainted with the terms: dharma, svabhava, vastu, ghatana, vikara and nisarga. The word dharma comes from dhri dhatu-the verbal root, meaning 'to hold'. That which any substance is holding and never lets go of and by which it can be identified is called its dharma, its religion.

Every vastu, or substance, has its dharma, that is, its svabhava, or nature. This svabhava arises automatically from its ghatana, its internal construction. It is not something acquired from anywhere else. It is not something to be practiced or learned. Dharma is the intrinsic nature (svabhava) arising from the ghatana (construction) of any substance (vastu). Next, we discussed how a vastu, when coming in contact with another force, can undergo transformation. The transformation of any substance is called vikara. When vikara takes place, the svadharma (svabhava) of a substance goes into a latent position and is apparently lost; the vastu's subsequent acquired nature is called nisarga.

To illustrate these terms, an example is given. A vastu, in this case water, has a dharma (svabhava), namely liquidity, which arises automatically from its ghatana. When water is subjected to extreme cold, a vikara (transformation) occurs in which its dharma, liquidity, is apparently lost. The transformation in this case is commonly known as freezing, in which the substance exhibits nisarga, an acquired nature, namely hardness or solidity, as opposed to its svabhava or dharma, liquidity. Now let us apply these terms to the subject of the jiva soul.

The jiva is transcendental by constitution; but because he is very tiny, he undergoes vikara (transformation) when he comes in contact with the material energy. His svabhava, his nature, or his dharma-that is, prema-dharma, vaisnava-dharma, bhagavat-dharma, sanatana-dharma, or jaiva-dharma-goes into a latent position and he takes on an acquired nature, called nisarga. It is important to know how that nisarga manifests in our lives. As a result of this nisarga, the jiva begins to engage in karma, or fruitive activity, that is, doing something to get something in return. Otherwise, he engages in jnana (speculative knowledge) in an attempt to become liberated. Or he performs yoga to achieve siddhi, mystic powers to control his environment. Thus, when Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura is speaking about jaiva-dharma, or vaisnava-dharma, he is not referring to a sectarian concern. This is not 'our belief,' our 'manifesto,' our 'party line.' No, this is the nature of every jiva.

Then how can we understand all the other religions of the world? Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura explains that the dharma of the jiva is unconditional loving service to Krsna, the all-attractive Supreme Personality of Godhead. The degree to which the conception of such service to Krsna is present within any other religious conception determines the degree to which that religious conception is valuable. We find that in all the religious conceptions of this whole world, there is some mixture of karma, jnana or yoga. Therefore, by following these paths, one cannot become entirely free from his nisarga, acquired nature.

What is vaisnava-dharma? If you will gather together all the religions of the world, and take out from them karma (the fruitive mentality, to go to paradise), jnana (the desire for salvation, to be liberated), and desires which are mixed with yoga siddhi (mystic powers such as healing and speaking in tongues), you'll be left with Vaisnavism. This is the pure dharma; it is without any contamination coming from nisarga (the acquired nature resulting from contact with the modes of material nature). Therefore, this jaiva-dharma, or the process of prema-bhakti, is the religion of every jiva, every living entity. The conception is completely broad and universal. If you will discuss this with anyone, they can easily see the defects of karma, jnana and yoga. And if they will remove these things from their religion, they will be left with Vaisnavism. So this is very good news for the whole world. We have a lot of work to do to broadcast this idea. We discussed this yesterday and we also explained about Krsna's sakti. He has one sakti, svarupa sakti, and it has three vrttis, three functions or tendencies known as sat-cit-ananda, or sandhini, samvit and hladini.

parasya saktir vividhaiva sruyate
svabhaviki jnana-bala-kriya ca
(Svetasvatara Upanisad 6.8)
There are three vrttis in the svarupa sakti. When the svarupa sakti comes out from the mandala of the cit-jagat, it transforms and becomes tatastha-sakti. From this tatastha-sakti, so many jivas have come. This sakti also transforms into the shadow of its original nature-that shadow aspect is called maya-sakti, and the effect of sandhini, samvit and hladini is also present there. We have discussed the three influences of these three vrttis in the three transformations of svarupa-sakti. Everyone remembers clearly? I think so. In case not, we'll mention again in brief. In the spiritual world, sandhini makes forms and shapes, samvit makes knowledge, but in Vrndavana samvit cannot work. It is transformed; because there is so much hladini there, it becomes only sambandha-jnana, knowledge of a special relationship with Krsna. And hladini transforms:

hladinira sara 'prema', prema-sara 'bhava'
bhavera parama-kastha, nama--'maha-bhava'
(CC. Adi 4.68)
This hladini develops into all the different varieties of prema. This is the vilasa of hladini-sakti. This sakti becomes so many varieties of waves of endless affection, its ultimate embodiment being Srimati Radhika Herself. So these are the three functions in the spiritual world.

In the material world, the three functions are present but in a transformed state. They become temporary existence, material knowledge, and happiness and distress, respectively. In the tatastha sakti, sandhini makes the jiva's form, samvit makes brahma-jnana, and hladini makes brahmananda. When the jiva is covered over and is not aware that 'I am the soul,' 'I am atma,' he is only absorbed in maya. In this condition, he has material knowledge and undergoes material happiness and distress. When his consciousness is not entangled in maya, then he realizes himself. What does he realize? Aham brahmasmi, I am spirit.

brahma-bhuta prasannatma na socati na kanksati
samah sarvesu bhutesu mad bhaktim labhate param
(Bhagavad Gita 18.58)
Brahma-bhuta prasannatma: he realizes, 'I am Brahma,' 'I am spirit only' and prasannatma, he becomes happy. How happy? Brahmananda: 'I am liberated'-only this.

Yesterday we also spoke about the vikara of the jiva's svarupa. Because the jiva is very tiny, due to contact with the material energy, vikara takes place. That means transformation takes place in the jiva's svarupa. There is atma guna vikara, that is, the qualities of the soul also become transformed. The jiva gives up his pure nature and becomes entangled with maya.

Today I want to say something about this tatastha sakti. When svarupa-sakti comes out from the mandala of cit-jagat, then it is called tatastha-sakti. This tatastha-sakti is also called aisi-sakti. Aisi-sakti means sakti of Isvara. The word 'aisi' comes from the word Isa. All the saktis are from Isvara, but this particular one is really special in the sense thatt it has some unique characteristics. Tatastha sakti has one karya, duty, and it has kriya, activity, the activity by which it performs its duty. So what is the duty of tatastha-sakti, aisi-sakti? What does she have to do?

(Devotee: She has to serve Krsna.)

All saktis have to serve Krsna. Now the karya, the duty of aisi-sakti, tatastha-sakti, is to assemble to apurna jagat. There is purna-jagat, the spiritual world, and apurna-jagat, the material world. That is the complete universe, and this in the incomplete universe, apurna-jagat. Aisi-sakti has to assemble the apurna jagat. That is her karya, her duty. How does she do it? In Bhagavad-Gita (7.4) Krsna says:

bhumira apo'nalo vayuh kham mano buddhi eva ca
ahankara iti yam me bhinna prakrtir astadha
There are eight types of bhinna prakrti, separated energy-earth, water, fire, air, space, mind, intelligence and false ego. But:

apareyam itas tv anyam prakrtim viddhi me param
jiva-bhutam maha-baho yayedam dharyate jagat
(Bhagavad-Gita 7.5)
Apart from these separated energies, I have another energy, 'prakrtim viddhi me param.' You should know this is para, this is a transcendental energy, it is not material, it is not a part of maya. Jiva bhutam maha baho: from this energy come all the jivas. What are the jivas doing? Yayedam dharyate jagat dharyate: dharma, dhr-dhatu-they are holding or sustaining this jagat, this material universe. Unless the jivas enter into the material energy, the universe will not go on. Take your body as a microcosm of the universe-in this body there are so many elements and so many living entities, all of whom are working together and living in harmony as long as the soul is present. The moment the soul goes, suddenly every cell in the body doesn't know how to cooperate with the others and it doesn't work anymore. Everything breaks down and becomes rotten and begins to emanate a foul odor. So the presence of the jiva causes everything in the body to go on in harmony. Due to the presence of the jiva in the sun, the sun god is is able to function. The moon, the wind, the rain and everything work in this way. The jivas have entered into the material energy along with the Supersoul, who facilitates their desires. Therefore, because of the presence of the jivas in all the departments of the material world, this jagat is going on. All the elements are there, but who assembled them? It was accomplished by one jiva in the form of Lord Brahma. Brahma took the material elements and assembled them, and the jivas entered into what he assembled; then their bodies came alive and they began to move. In this way, the whole universe is going on.

Krsna said: Jiva-bhutam maha-baho yayedam dharyate jagat. It was the duty of the tatastha-sakti to assemble the apurna-jagat. How did the aisi-sakti assemble the apurna-jagat? By manifesting unlimited, tiny jivas. Those jivas are very astonishing, having a quality that is not present in any other spiritual manifestation. Though they are para-sakti, of a transcendental nature and not material, they have a dual passport. It means that this particular manifestation, which has come from tatastha-sakti, can come under the control of cit-dharma, the spiritual nature. Alternatively, they can become vasibhuta (overpowered) and come under the control of jada-dharma. By coming into the proximity of the modes of material nature, then, though they are spiritual and conscious, gradually they can accept jada-dharma. That means they tend towards inert nature. In other words, they start to freeze up. Water is soft, but it can gradually become hard-crystals form, it solidifies and becomes ice. In the same way, by the influence of the powerful material energy, the jivas, because they are so tiny, undergo some transformation (vikara) and accept jada dharma, even though they are spiritual by nature. This is the only spiritual energy that has the capacity to accept jada dharma. When vikara of the jiva-svarupa, the transformation of his nature (atma-guna-vikara) takes place, the jiva becomes less and less conscious.

In the human form of life, we are relatively conscious some of the time, and sometimes not. If the jiva will degrade into the animal species, then his consciousness becomes more and more contracted. As he goes further down-to fish, to plants and stones, the consciousness continues to contract, and in stone, the jiva is practically like jada now, having no feeling at all. Though the jivas are spiritual, they can accept jada-dharma. There are other jivas who also came from jiva-sakti, but they manifested directly in the spiritual world when Krsna situated Himself in jiva-sakti and became Baladeva. These jivas are essentially the same as the tatastha jivas, but because they are in the atmosphere of svarupa-sakti, their visuddha-bhava (their pure mood) is active; therefore, they can never be covered by maya. This means they will never accept jada-dharma. Only those jivas that are manifested from Paramatma as tatastha, due to haviing a dual nature, have the opportunity to accept cit-dharma or jada-dharma.

If you want to understand the subject deeply, you have to know that sattva (existence) has many levels. The word sattva means existence; the sandhini-sakti makes existence but it transforms into many levels. So this sattva has different levels. First we should know what is sattva, then misra-sattva, suddha-sattva, visuddha-sattva, and finally suddha-sattva visesatma.

The conditioned soul is called misra-sattva. This existence is contaminated by the reactions of the modes of nature-sattva, rajas and tamas, goodness, passion and ignorance. When the jiva comes in contact with the material energy, vikara takes place in the jiva-svarupa because the gunas have entered his satta (existence). This is the state of misra-sattva, mixed existence. When the jiva's tendency for karma, jnana and yoga have gone, the jiva can completely retract the senses and stop them from contemplating the material energy. This is accomplished either by associating with a transcendental personality or by executing very hard austerities. Gradually his transformation goes away and he comes from the level of misra-sattva to suddha-sattva, pure existence. Now he is mukta purusa, liberated.

In Jaiva Dharma, we see how Brajanatha questioned Raghunatha dasa Babaji. He asked, Now I have understood the defect in the conditioned soul-this vikara in atma-svarupa. He has undergone some transformation due to the association of guna-mayi-maya. But is there any defect in a liberated soul? I am not talking about a pure devotee who is liberated in that world, but rather a mukta, a jiva who has achieved liberation. He is brahma-bhuta-is there any defect in him? Babaji Maharaja replied, There is no defect in a liberated soul in terms of vikara. There is no transformation in jivatma-svarupa. But there is one problem. That is, because he is very weak, from the platform of liberation, again he can fall down. Again, vikara, the transformation, can take place, because he is very tiny and the material energy is very powerful.

This has been described in Srimad-Bhagavatam. It is very important to understand the depth of this verse. If a jiva becomes mukta, that is, suddha, all the vikara goes away; the transformation in his svarupa goes away. It is as if he has come again to the central, or marginal, position. But if he wants to enter the spiritual world, another transformation will have to take place, because when he is liberated, what can he realize? What is in the jiva? Brahma-jnana and brahmananda, only up to this. Therefore, when he is liberated and he becomes free from the influence of the material energy, he will only realize brahma-jnana and brahmananda. From there, again he can become distorted, vikara can take place and he can come in maya again. Only to become pure is not enough. To come to the platform of suddha-sattva is not enough. He will have to come to the stage of visuddha-sattva.

Visuddha-sattva, specialized purity, is the nature of Krsna and His associates and the whole spiritual world. There, the pure existence is predominated by the actions of samvit and hladini, which are of the nature of visuddha-sattva. This is described by Rupa Gosvami in Bhakti-Rasamrta-Sindhu (1.3.1):

suddha-sattva visesatma
prema suryamsu samya-bhak
rucibhis citta-masrnya
krd asau bhava ucayate
Here the word 'visesa' indicates visuddha-sattva. Visesatma prema-don't stop at the end of the line, go one word further, suddha-sattva visesatma prema, the love. In other words, the combination of samvit and hladini, which is of the nature of visuddha, is like the sun, and one ray of that is called bhava. So unless the jiva attains bhava, he can fall down. He may be suddha, but unless his service to the Supreme Lord in the form of bhava-bhakti manifests, he can fall down. Therefore, in Srimad-Bhagavatam (10.2.32), it is stated:

ye 'nye 'ravindaksa vimukta-maninas
tvayy asta-bhavad avisuddha-buddhayah
aruhya krcchrena param padam tatah
patanty adho 'nadrta-yusmad-anghrayah
Srila Prabhupada quoted this verse in many of his purports throughout his Bhagavatam. It means, O my Lord, because they neglect to serve Your lotus feet, those who think that they are liberated by dint of very hard austerities again fall down because their intelligence is not pure. We have heard this verse a thousand times, but look closely at the words. It says, ye 'nye 'ravindaksa vimukta-maninas: those who think, manina means they consider themselves vimukta, supremely liberated; they are mukta, they are liberated. They are not touched by the three modes of material nature anymore, but they are thinking, I am vimukta, supremely liberated. Ye 'nye 'ravindaksa,' 'O Aravindaksa, O lotus-eyed Lord, ye-those who, vimukta manina-think they are supremely liberated, tvayy asta bhaved avisuddha-buddhayah-their buddhi is not visuddha. They may be suddha, but they are not visuddha. What will happen to them? Aruhya krcchena-even though by practice, aruhya means they went up, krcchena means by terribly severe austerities, yoga, sense control and jnana; they come up. Param padam-to a transcendental situation, tatah-from that place, patanty-they fall down. Patanti adho 'nadrta-yusmad-anghraya-why did they fall down? 'nadrta-they do not honor You. They have no respect for Your lotus feet, so they fall down.

The jiva may do very hard austerities and gradually, gradually become free from the influence of the material energy, but because, when the svarupa-sakti transforms into tatastha, the action of samvit and hladini is only brahma-jnana and brahmananda. Therefore, although by their own activity they can become liberated, they remain weak, and again they can go down. This is a very important point. If we can understand this tattva, then we will understand all tattvas-such as pramana-tattva, jiva-tattva, guru-tattva, sadhu sanga, vaisnava-tattva, nama-tattva, bhakti-tattva, bhava-tattva, prema-tattva-if we can just clear this point. How? Now we understand that when the jiva is free from the modes, he can become liberated, but the function of samvit and hladini in him is only brahma-jnana and brahmananda.

That is why every single living entity has a tendency to try just to get out of this world (nirvana). This is their disposition. Generally, all the jivas of this world do not naturally go toward bhakti. There are millions and millions of people in this world following a spiritual path, all of whom are like Buddhists. All are mayavadis. Otherwise, they are Christians and think God is the light. Even Muslims, Sikhas, Jains and all others ultimately think that God is not a person, that He has no form, and that there is no sense of service in that realm. Why? Because this is the nature of the jiva. Up until the point of liberation, even in the pure state, it is their nature.

So, if this is the nature of the jiva, why is devotional service being called jaiva dharma? Why? This is a very wonderful thing. Now we come very deeply to the conception of Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura and all our acaryas. The tatastha-sakti is ultimately a transformation of svarupa-sakti, so the vrttis of samvit and hladini are present in the form of brahma-jnana and brahamananda. But because the jiva-sakti is ultimately transformed from svarupa-sakti, the jivas undergo another transformation by the association of a person who is himself established in svarupa-sakti. The samvit and hladini which is present in the jiva can be transformed, the brahma-jnana transforms into sambandha-jnana and the brahmananda into premananda, or sevananda. Ultimately, the tatastha-sakti is a transformation of svarupa-sakti. Then, though the jivas have not come from the spiritual world, they have come from tatastha, thus samvit and hladini in them is only as brahma-jnana and brahmananda, even if they are completely pure. Still, because ultimately the tatastha-sakti has come from (is a transformation of) svarupa sakti, the samvit and hladini within them becomes refined and transforms back, even though the jiva himself was never like that. Because tatastha has come from there originally, transformation takes place: brahma-jnana into sambandha-jnana and the brahmananda into premananda, sevananda.

I'll give one example to clarify this. This example has been given in Srimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.24) and it's quoted by Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura in Madhurya Kadambini:

parthivad daruno dhumas
tasmad agnis trayimayah
tamasas tu rajas tasmat
sattvam yad brahma-darsanam
[The firewood is the transformation of the earth, and smoke is better than the raw wood, and fire is still better, because by fire we can derive so many benefits by superior knowledge, or Vedas. Similarly, rajas quality of matter is better than tamas quality, but sattva quality is the superior quality by which one can realize the Absolute Truth.]
He is saying that if you gather a big pile of dirt and try to set it on fire, what will happen? Nothing. But earth transforms into wood. If wood is wet, you can't do anything with it either, but if it is dry, you can light a fire. From fire you can perform a yajna, and from a yajna you can get transcendental knowledge. In the same way, when the jiva is absorbed in misra-sattva, when he is in the mode of ignorance, you can't do anything with him. He is useless-just sleeping all day, getting drunk, arguing and lamenting. But at least, if the jiva is in the mode of passion, that is better because he is running around like a madman. In this condition he can make himself useful-you can give him a bookbag or a mrdanga and let him run around. Gradually, as the effect of raja guna goes away, he will come in sattva guna. In this world, however, there is always some mixture of tamas and rajas in sattva guna. But when he comes to pure goodness, suddha-sattva, then, sattvam yam brahma-darsanam.

From that platform he can realize brahma. The jiva can be compared to wood. Inside the wood there is fire. Why? Wood is formed by heat coming from the sun. The sun has fire, which has been absorbed and stored up in the wood. That piece of wood was never on fire, never. If you put the wood down and carefully watch it forever, it will never catch on fire, never. But if another piece of wood which is already on fire will come and touch it, what will happen? The wood will burst into flames. Where did the fire in the first piece of wood come from? It originally came from the sun and was already in the wood, but it takes the touch of the second piece of wood that was already on fire to cause the potential within that wood to come out. By itself, it will not come out.

In the same way, the jiva, coming from tatastha sakti, cannot do any bhakti. On its own, the jiva cannot do bhakti, no matter how much he chants, how much he reads, how much he associates with other jivas, who are also like wood. There will have to be at least one piece of wood that is on fire-who has visuddha-bhava. This is true even if the living entity is doing a very strong sadhana, and he has been liberated from the modes of passion and ignorance. Sometimes devotees will glorify someone, This devotee is really brahminical. He gets up everyday and serves the deities and chants so much. He's so fixed and steady and so much in the mode of goodness. He's a very good devotee. Then, after thirty years he falls down. Why? Because it doesn't matter how pure you become by your own efforts, you will only come up to the platform of sattva, pure goodness. You can realize brahma-jnana and brahmananda. But how will the potential within you, like the fire in wood, come out? Your potential sambandha-jnana and sevananda, or premananda, will not come out. There's nothing you can do. The jiva's ultimate potential will surface only when he comes in contact with a pure devotee who has bhava, suddha-sattva visesatma, who is not in misra-sattva or suddha-sattva. Then and then only, by that contact, will the idea come in his heart that I want to serve God, and his tendency to go towards karma, yoga or jnana-sense gratification and liberation, bhukti and mukti-will begin to be severed. When one associates with a maha-bhagavata, a pure devotee in the stage of bhava, a new-born desire comes, that first feeling that I don't want enjoyment, I don't want exploitation or renunciation, I want only dedication. This first feeling is called bhakti-lata-bija.

Therefore: brahmanda bhramite kona bhagyavana jiva
guru krsna prasade paya bhakti lata bija
Where does this bhakti-lata-bija come from? Does the jiva have it? No. Does the guru have it? No. When the jiva comes in contact with someone who has visuddha-bhava, then, the potential that was there becomes activated. It is a function; can we say a function is there or not? A function is not a substance, it's a function. For example, you are sitting down now, you can run, but when you are sitting, where is running? Do you have running? No, because it's not a substance, it's a potential, you can run. So this function, that is, krsna-seva vasana, the desire to serve Krsna, becomes animated. That latent function becomes animated when he meets the maha-bhagavat, who has visuddha-bhava. Therefore brahmanda bhramite kona bhagyavan jiva. The jivas are wandering through thousands of lifetimes and his tendency to serve Krsna will never come-he will always strive for bhukti or mukti. This is what we see in so many religions of the world. But this tendency, I want to serve Krsna only, being free from bhukti and mukti, comes when he associates with someone who is on fire, not someone who is in misra-sattva, or even a mukta in suddha-sattva. What is required is a pure devotee who has prema or at least bhava. He is called jata rati vaisnava. The association of a vaisnava who has rati can cause the awakening of the tendency within the jiva to serve Krsna. This tendency is called bhakti-lata-bija. We will need more and more association. Why? Because the jiva's pure visuddha mood has not come yet. Only by the light of that association he is feeling something. If he doesn't have that association, that feeling to serve Krsna will become very weak and will eventually turn into bhukti and mukti again. Why? Because his realization is coming like a reflection from the association, and it will remain like this until he comes into the stage of bhava.

When the jiva's desire to serve Krsna is kindled by the association of a pure devotee, he will face some obstacles and problems. These are called anarthas and they come in many varieties:

1) Svarupa bhrama: that means philosophical misconceptions. These are of four types: Sva-svarupa bhrama-in regard to one's own nature. For example, many devotees think that the jiva has no svarupa, we are just a blob of Brahman; but no, we do have a very subtle form. But the tendency to serve will not come without association. This is called jiva-svarupa bhrama. Then paratattva-svarupa bhrama-not understanding the nature of paratattva Sri Krsna. Then sadhya-sadhana-bhrama-not knowing what is the goal of life and the process to achieve it. The last one is called bhajana-virodhi-visaya bhrama: not understanding what is detrimental to our bhajana. So these misconceptions will have to go away.

2) Then the second type of anartha it called asat trsna, thirst for asat, that which is not opposed to our eternal nature. It is also of four types: 1) the thirst for material enjoyment in this world; 2) the desire for happiness in the heavenly planets, svarga loka. The third one is the desire for asta siddhi and nava nidhi, the eight perfections of yoga and nine jewels of Kuvera. The fourth one is liberation. This is also called asat trsna, thirst for that which is opposed to our eternal nature.

3) Aparadha-this is of four types. The first one is seva-aparadha. That means offences to Krsna's svarupa, the deity in the temple. There are thirty-two types of seva-aparadha. Then there are ten types of nama-aparadha. The next aparadha is called tadiya-aparadha, offences to those who are tadiya-they belong to Krsna, such as Vaisnavas, Tulasi devi, guru, sastra and so on. Then jiva-aparadha, to all jivas, even those who are not devotees. They are apparently disconnected from God, but we should not make offences even to an ant. These are the four types of offences.

4) The last one is hrdaya durbalya, weakness of heart. This is manifest in the tendency to be proud, as well as fault-finding, enviousness, duplicity and attachment to very insignificant things.

Now the question comes, what is anartha? Where is it? We all have anarthas we have to deal with, so if we just knew what they were and where to find them, then we could locate them and wipe them off the face of the earth. OK anarthas, you've been giving me so many problems. We're going to line you up against the wall and˙ We've heard so much about all the different types of anarthas, but what are they and where are they? We know about so many substances-earth, water, fire, air, ether, intelligence, mind, false ego-we know all the ingredients, the twenty-six elements of the material world. But I never saw anartha anywhere among the elements. So what are they made of? What is this anartha? In Jaiva Dharma, Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura clearly explains the conception of anartha, which is called naisargika phal, the fruit of nisarga. In other words, when the jiva undergoes vikara and his svabhava becomes latent, he attains nisarga, an aquired nature. Anarthas are the automatic characteristics of his citta-vrtti, the tendency of his consciousness due to having an acquired nature. Now the jiva has become hard, so he will have to become very soft. He will have give up his rigid behavior and attitudes and learn to relax a little bit. This relaxation or melting means that he will have to let go of his accustomed behavior as a softness gradually comes in the jiva. This softness indicates that he is gradually becoming free from nisarga, the acquired nature.

What is the method by which the jiva gradually becomes soft and lets go of the acquired nature, which is characterized by the presence of so many different anarthas? It is called saranagati. Surrender is the process of giving up the nisarga, the acquired nature. And how do you know that the jiva is giving up his nisarga? Because these anarthas, which are the fruits of nisarga, are all gradually disappearing; they are fading away and becoming less and less and less. That is called anartha nivrtti. So:

adau sraddha tatah sadhu-
sanga 'tha bhajana-kriya
tato 'nartha-nivrtti syat
tato nistha rucis tatah
From sraddha up to ruci are the progressive steps of the gradual process of saranagati. Now we can understand saranagati-giving up nisarga and approaching our actual svabhava. So Bhaktivinoda Thakura explains that in this process of saranagati, there are six angas, six limbs. What are they?

anukulyasya sankalpah pratikulyasya varjanam
raksisyat iti visvaso goptrtve varanam tatha
atma-niksepa karpanye sad-vidha saranagatih
(Hari-bhakti-vilasa 11.676)
Anukulyasya sankalpa, we make a strong vow, I will do everything which is favorable for devotional service. Pratikulyasya varjanam, I will make a determined effort not to do anything against my practice of devotional service. Raksisyatiti visvaso, I have a strong faith that in any situation Krsna will protect me. Goptrtve varanam tatha, Now and tomorrow and forever, I will not have to do anything for my maintenance, Krsna will maintain me. Dainya, to always be meek and humble and give respect to others. And atma-nivedana means to not have any interest separate from the interest of Krsna. In the beginning, surrender means to Gurudeva and Vaisnavas, gurupadasraya, surrendering completely to Gurudeva,because at first we don't know Krsna. To not have any interest separate from the desire of guru, to make your desire and the desire of guru one-this is atma-nivedana.

The six angas of saranagati are composed of five moods. The first mood is called pratijna, promise, anukulyasya sankalpah-pratikulyasya varjanam, I will do everything favorable and give up everything unfavorable. These two together make one mood that is called pratijna, I promise-this mood should come. Then the next mood, Krsna will certainly protect me, is called visvas, confidence, confidence in Krsna. The third mood, I know that Krsna will maintain me throughout my whole life-this is called nirbharata, dependence. Then, to always be humble-this is dainya bhava. And finally, atma-nivedana means not to have an independent mood. To depend on Krsna is one mood and not to have any independent mentality is the final mood.

So now we can see where we are. We are in misra-sattva. Some devotees are very pure, I know, but myself and others like me are now absorbed in misra-sattva. Our jivatma has undergone vikara, some transformation, and we are ruled by an acquired nature, nisarga. The fruit of this nisarga is anartha, but if everyday we try to keep in our hearts these five moods, that is, a very firm promise, confidence in Krsna, to depend on Krsna, to always be humble, and have no self-interest, then when these five moods are firmly situated in the heart, that means that the nisarga has gone away.

The combination of these five moods together is called sraddha, faith-this sraddha is suddha, it is pure. This is called paramartika sraddha. The first sraddha, as found in the verse 'adau sraddha tatah sadhu-sanga', is not paramarthika. It is not transcendental faith. It is worldly faith only, and it is soft, but because it came about by some contact with a sadhu, there is a slight scent of paramartika sraddha in it. It manifests in the feeling that only Krsna is worshipable; all the demigods are not worshipable, only Krsna. If this mood is there-that God is a person and He is the object of my worship, not anyone else-this laukika sraddha mentioned here is called 'adau sraddha'. There is only a smell of paramarthika sraddha in it in the form of one-pointedness towards Krsna. But strictly speaking, at this time, sraddha is not called paramartika because it is mixed. The jiva is still in the stage of misra-sattva, but he is trying hard to make a strong promise: I will follow everything my Gurudeva said. I have confidence in Guru and Krsna. Guru and Krsna will maintain me, and I will not be independent.

When these moods gradually become stronger and stronger, and five moods are combined in the heart, that means naisargika phala is going away. This is called anartha nivrtti, and the devotee becomes steady. Now his suddha mood is coming. He is advancing to the platform of being liberated, because the effect of the modes of nature is going away. In nistha he is still not fully surrendered, but when ruci starts to come, he is known as saranagat, unconditionally surrendered. Even when he is in nistha, these five moods are always in his heart; he never lets go and no material moods predominate. Then if he will continue to associate with a sadhu, ruci will come. Why? Because there is some light coming out from that association. By his own effort alone, he can only realize something of brahma, but by that association he can have a realization-I want to serve Krsna in a particular way. Before taking sadhu sanga, he was not entitled to this realization. And when that feeling comes to serve Krsna in one particular mood, he has entered ruci.

The bhakti-lata-bija has been called sraddha which is steady and mixed with pure ruci. The inner portion of the bhakti-lata-bija is the desire to serve Krsna, krsna-seva-vasana, and the outer portion is sraddha, faith. The external symptom that someone has faith is 'sa ca saranapati laksana' (Amnaya Sutra 58), they are unconditionally surrendered and are manifesting these five moods. Now there is an important point to note here. Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura said that when the six angas of saranagati are manifest, five feelings are firmly situated in the heart of the jiva. Those five feelings combined together is called sraddha and that mood is the first step that the conditioned jiva takes in becoming like the nitya parikaras, the associates of Sri Krsna in the spiritual world. The associates of Radha and Krsna in the spiritual world always have these moods, but in a very advanced degree. When the living entity gives up his nisarga and these five moods are firmly situated in his heart (he has achieved sraddha), that is the first step that the jiva takes in becoming just like them. If you want to live in this world, you have to be like everyone else. But if you want to live in that world, you'll have to make the first step in becoming like them, and that is paramarthika sraddha. This will not come in misra-sattva or during nisarga. Naisargika phala should melt away by the process of saranagati; the devotee's mood must be steady, and then he comes in his suddha mood.

Now, from this suddha mood begins ruci, and suddha-bhava is coming. Visuddha-bhava refers to the transformation of brahma-jnana into sambandha-jnana, and brahmananda into premananda, but this has not happened yet. The transformation has not yet taken place properly until bhava-bhakti comes. Ruci is the first appearance of suddha-bhava, and in this stage he must have association. When ruci becomes thicker, it turns into asakti, attachment. In the stage of asakti, now his heart is so pure that he can realize his spiritual form. He can see an abhasa (semblance) of his spiritual form at the time of chanting-some sphurti takes place by mercy of guru. Why? The form was already there, but covered. Therefore Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu says:

ceto-darpana-marjanam bhava-maha-davagni-nirvapanam
sreyah-kairava-candrika-vitaranam vidya-vadha-jivanam
anandambudhi-vardhanam prati-padam purnamrtasvadanam
sarvatma-snapanam param vijayate sri-krsna-sankirtanam
Ceto darpana marjanam refers to sraddha, you should have some paramarthika sraddha. When you chant, bhava-maha-davagni-nirvapanam, all the anarthas are going. Then sreyah-kairava-candrika-vitaranam: this means that the name is like the moon and the rays of bhava are coming from that pure name. But in the stage of ruci, you are not chanting the pure name. Therefore, you must do kirtana with devotees who are chanting the pure name. And the rays coming out from that pure name will induce the lotus of your heart to open. This is ruci. The jiva can go up to liberation himself, but when he does kirtana with someone who has visuddha mood, then its rays touch his heart and initiate the first feeling that I want to serve Sri Radha-Krsna like Rupa Manjari. This is called ruci. Why? Because the rays of bhava coming from his association are opening his heart, and when it starts to open more and more, he sees the abhasa of his own svarupa in the stage of asakti. At the time of bhajana, he sometimes sees Radha and Krsna and Vrndavana also. But because his own visuddha-bhava has not come yet, he has no seva-adhikara, he has no qualification to go and serve Them. Gurudeva always says, He can see but he can't touch. Like in a sweet shop, the sweets are behind glass-you can see the sweets but you cannot taste them.

So in that stage, he should associate more and more, and the more he stays in contact with someone who is on fire, then the fire, the potential within him, comes out and he goes from asakti to bhava. That is called:

suddha-sattva visesatma prema suryamsu samya-bhak
rucibhis citta-masrnya krd asau bhava ucayate
What is bhava? Now, by his association, the potential which was in him comes out. Rucibhis citta-masryna, and his citta is masrnya. Now it just melts completely, it becomes completely molten-that is called bhava. What is the melting of the heart? This involves three types of tastes: bhagavat-prapti-abhilasa, anukula-abhilasa and sauhard-abhilasa. In ruci, this desire arises, but when bhava comes, his heart totally melts and his spiritual body is now totally enlivened-he is composed of this taste. What is that? Bhagavat-prapti-abhilasa-to attain Radha and Krsna; anukula-abhilasa-to serve Radha and Krsna in such a way that They become extremely happy; and sauhard-abhilasa-to not only serve Them, but to be really really intimate, to have one heart with Them, to become tadatmika with Radhika. This is bhava.

In misra-sattva, the jiva has nisarga, he is very hard. When the nisarga goes away, he becomes pure. But it is not until he goes on doing bhajana in the association of pure devotees that the heart totally melts. Then, all the potential for love of Krsna comes out in the form of intense desires-to always be with Radha and Krsna, to always serve Them, and not only to serve Them but to have intimacy and equality with Them. Therefore, what is the process of sadhana-bhakti? This is very important. Through proper sadhana and association, all types of tattvas can be understood.

Now we are coming to sadhana-bhakti-tattva. Rupa Gosvami gives the definition in Bhakti-Rasamrta-Sindhu:

krti-sadhya bhavet-sadhya
bhava sa sadhanabhida
nitya-siddhasya bhavasya
prakatyam hrdi sadhyata
What is sadhana? Krti-sadhya, you achieve this by your senses. You are engaging the senses of your body and mind in hearing, chanting and remembering. Sadhya bhava sa sadhanabhida-so that you can attain your sadhya bhava, your perfect mood. Then, if you will hear this first line, it seems that by doing sadhana, you will get something. But no, it is not that by practicing you will get it; it's not like that. This mood is nitya-siddhasya, nitya-siddha-bhava. Siddha means established, it is established in the heart. It is a potential within the jiva, but you will have to do sadhana, and by doing this sadhana, what will happen? Prakatyam hrdi sadhyata, it will manifest. Gurudeva gives the example of stones-in stones there is fire, but you can't see it. However, if you strike two stones together, sparks jump out. Don't think that by clashing the stones together, you made a spark. The fire was already there; you only caused it to manifest. In the same way, when someone does sadhana, he is trying hard again and again; when nitya-siddha-bhava manifests, one should not think that it was produced by one's sadhana. Only prakatyam hrdi sadhyata-what was always there comes out. So when the relationship with Krsna manifests in the heart of the jiva, he feels, I was always the servant of Radha and Krsna. This is who I am. This is self-realization. So even though bhava is something you attain by sadhana, when it comes, he feels like I always had it. This is something very weird. We have to go on chanting. There are not any words to tell what this experience is. Only Rupa Gosvami felt and realized everything, and he is telling us in his writings.

At the time of doing sadhana-bhajana, the devotee can realize, O Rupa Gosvami, how did you write such a wonderful thing! And then a very intense desire comes in you to run and fall at his feet. What Rupa Gosvami has written is so sweet and beautiful. If one will do bhajana, he can realize the words of Srila Rupa Gosvamipada. Now there is one important point here. In Siksastakam, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu writes, vidya vadhu jivanam. When asakti comes you will realize, Oh, I am the maidservant of Radhika, but you cannot serve Her. So, anandambudhi vardhanam, the ocean of ananda is increasing (vardhanam). In other words, ananda was already present in the jiva; now that ananda becomes so powerful. Though the jiva as a vastu is minute, his dharma is unlimited. His prema dharma is unlimited and so powerful. The vast Supreme Personality of Godhead, the controller of all existence, can become controlled by the prema of a tiny jiva. This is the impossible potential of love.

Now, what is the jiva, what nature is in the jiva? I want to explain these tattvas and how this concept of jaiva dharma makes all tattvas clear. So far, we have explained bhakti-tattva-what is sadhana-bhakti and bhava-bhakti, and what is sraddha, bhajana kriya, anartha nivrtti, anartha, nistha, ruci, bhakti-lata-bija, asakti, bhava, bhava-bhakti and prema-bhakti. All of these concepts have become clear only by understanding jaiva dharma.

Now we come to another tattva, guru-tattva. If we will understand only Jaiva Dharma, then we know what is guru-tattva. It does not matter what the jiva does or who he associates with, he cannot even attain ruci unless he has the sanga of a jata-rati-vaisnava. Even if he is always hearing, chanting, remembering and performing other limbs of bhakti, ruci will not come without associating with a Vaisnava in whose heart visuddha-bhava (visuddha-sattva) is present. The desire to serve Krsna in a particular way, the bhakti-lata-bija, will not come. And even if he has associated with a guru and he has received that bhakti-lata-bija, if he does not go on associating, as Gurudeva always says, It will dry up and be finished.

Now, guru-tattva is clear. The guru must have visuddha-bhava; he must have rati. Otherwise, the jivas will always go for bhukti and mukti. They are hearing, chanting and remembering, but what is the result? To have a bigger temple with more marble, a more comfortable room, a better computer, a bigger car, more disciples and a new wife. And if they get a new wife, afterwards they want mukti, liberation. So the jiva will always go towards bhukti and mukti unless he associates with a jata-rati-vaisnava. This is bound to happen; the jiva has no choice, because that is all there is in the tatastha-sakti. The refinement of brahma-jnana and brahmananda takes place only by the association of someone with visuddha-bhava.

We have explained bhakti-tattva, sadhana-tattva, bhava-tattva, prema-tattva, and now guru-tattva is clear. Now come to the next concept, sadhu sanga. You have a bona fide guru who is liberated, and he gave you diksa mantra. So do you still need to associate with a sadhu? Yes. Why? Because if you take a piece of wood which is on fire and touch the other piece of wood and then take it away, what will happen? Even if it was starting to turn black and smoke a little bit, the spark of fire will still go out. You'll have to keep that fire there until the other one is also on fire. In other words, the jiva will have to associate again and again and again with maha-bhagavat jata-rati-bhava-bhaktas until their own bhava manifests; they won't burn on their own until the flames of bhava have manifested in their heart. Even if they have realized sambandha-jnana and they know who they are-sometimes they see the abhasa of their svarupa in a sphurti-but still, until bhava comes, they will have to associate again and again. When they achieve rati and have seva-adhikara, they begin their service to Radha and Krsna. Spontaneously, asta-kaliya-lila comes in their heart whenever they chant. Until this stage comes, even the heat that was coming will cool down if they give up associating. So now, the philosophy of sadhu sanga has been clarified. Do you need to associate with sadhu? Yes. And how much do you need? You need to associate up to bhava. And when you come to the level of bhava, then without sadhu sanga, you will go mad. At that point, this question will not arise. That person does not think, Do I need sadhu sanga? That person rolls on the ground and weeps bitterly:

sunyayate maha-gostham
girindro 'jagarayate
vyaghra-tundayate kundam
jivatu-rahitasya me
(Sri Prarthanasraya-caturdasaka, verse 11)
The whole of Vrndavana is now like a desert, Giriraja Govardhana is like a python eating me alive. Radha Kunda is like the mouth of a tiger about to devour me alive. Srila Raghunatha dasa Gosvami is asking, Why is it like this? Because I don't have the association of Rupa Gosvami. There is no need to ask such a person, Do you need sadhu sanga? They are beyond any misconception in this regard.

We have clearly explained the necessity of and the extent to which we need sadhu sanga. We have also discussed what kind of sadhu we should associate with, and what is vaisnava-tattva. Next we will look at pramana-tattva. Does anyone know Dasa Mula Siksa?

amnayah praha tattvam harim iha paramam sarva-saktim rasabdhim tad-bhinnamsams ca jivan prakrti-kavalitan tad-vimuktams ca bhavad
bhedabheda-prakasam sakalam api hareh sadhanam suddha-bhaktim sadhyam tat pritim evety upadisati janan gauracandrah svayam sah
There are so many more tattvas and they all expand on the basis of one fundamental idea, a clear conception of the dharma of the jiva. Therefore, my Gurudeva often remarks that Jaiva Dharma is a masterpiece and anyone who is well acquainted with it will become very strong because he will know every siddhanta without any doubt or misconception.

Gaura premanande!

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